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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Nidah 17



(a) No! It is not necessary to chase away the mice from under the bed before Tashmish; Rebbi Shimon is referring to human beings - and that includes even one's own slaves.

(b) Certain people put slaves on a par with donkeys, because of the Pasuk "Shevu Lachem Poh Im ha'Chamor" which Avraham said to Yishmael and Eliezer.

(c) Some of the Amora'im actually used to chase away the flies from their beds, but that is no more than a Chumra.

(a) One should not eat peeled garlic, onions or eggs which have been left peeled overnight.

(b) The danger no longer exists when one places some of the ends or the peels together with them.

(c) The same applies to diluted wine, but only if one leaves it overnight in a metal or clay vessel.

(a) It is dangerous to sleep in a cemetery, when one's intention is to attract the evil spirits (to put on some form of magician show), and sometimes the spirits try to kill him.

(b) Throwing out one's finger or toe-nails into the street will endanger the lives of the fetuses, when pregnant women walk over them. Nor is there any difference whether one cuts them with scissors or bites them etc., whether he cuts both sets of nails or only one, or whether he cuts something after them or not. It is always prohibited.

(c) A Chasid burns his nails (destroys them completely), a Tzadik buries them, and a Rasha throws them away.

(d) Someone who is Meshamesh after bloodletting, will have children who are very weak. If both parents let blood before Tashmish, then the child will have a Sheretz in his brain.
This does not apply, if he eats something first.

(a) One should not be Meshamesh by day either because one may come to despise or hate his wife, as we learnt earlier (the Gemara now adds the Pasuk - "ve'Ahavta le'Rei'acha Kamocha"), or because 'Yisrael Kedoshim Heim'.
It is permitted in a dark room; a Talmid-Chacham, who behaves with additional Tzenius, is permitted even in a light room, provided he covers the bodies with his cloak.

(b) Beis Shamai in our Mishnah, does not permit Tashmish by the light of a lamp, we must change the Lashon to 'O *Tivdok* le'Or ha'Ner'.

(c) And the same applies to the Beraisa, where we need to change the Lashon to '*ha'Bodek* Mitaso le'Or ha'Ner, Harei Zeh Meguneh'.

(d ) It is Meguneh to make a Bedikah by the light of a lamp, because it is difficult to be Bodek properly by such a dim light - in spite of which, Beis Shamai permits it.

5 )
(a) There is a good side to being Meshamesh by the light of day (even though the Gemara forbids it), inasmuch as when a man is tired, he might indulge in Tashmish purely in order to satisfy his wife's needs, but not with any feeling. As a result, he may come to despise his wife. In the daytime, he is more likely to be intimate with his wife with more desire, which will increase his love for her. That is why we thought that perhaps the members of Moonbaz' household were actually praised for making Tashmish by day.

(b) When they used to announce 'Ma'an Ba'ei Pikuli be'Nahama'? they meant who needs cotton (or linen) for Tashmish (which in more refined speech, is referred to as bread) - They would announce this every Friday, because Friday night is the time of Onah for Talmidei-Chachamim.

(c) Fresh linen and worn-out linen garments are good to use as Eidim (because they are very white); new linen garments, which are not so white, are not.

(d) Clean wool is also a good agent for Bedikah.

(a) Snow is more of a liquid than it is a solid. Consequently, if someone thinks to eat it, it does not become a food, whereas if he thinks to drink it, it does become a Mashkeh.

(b) If someone passes some snow into the air of an earthenware oven in which there is a Sheretz, the whole batch becomes a Rishon le'Tum'ah, because the Torah reckons the entire air of the oven as an Av ha'Tum'ah.




(a) The Cheder and the Perozdor are placed one behind the other - the Perozdor in front and the Cheder behind it. The Aliyah, as its name suggests, is above them, and any blood from there (which is Tahor), flows into the Perozdor.
The blood from the Cheder (which is the Mekor) is Tamei.

(b) The Lul is the passage between the Aliyah and the Perozdor; It leads, not to the back of the Perozdor, but to the middle, so that some of the Perozdor is in front of the Lul and some of it is behind it. According to Rami bar Shmuel and Rav Yitzchak b'Rebbi Yehudah, any blood found in the Perozdor behind the Lul, is Safek Tamei (because, had it flowed down from the Aliyah, it would have flowed down to the front. And any blood found in front of the Lul, is Tahor. 'Nimtza bi'Perozdor, Sefeiko Tamei' now refers to the part of the Perozdor which is behind the Lul.

(c) Raba bar Rav Huna objected to that interpretation, because the Mishnah writes, regarding blood found in the Perozdor 'Chezkaso min ha'Mekor', which suggests that it has a Din of Vaday Tamei (at least behind the Lul); so how could they learn that even blood found in the Perozdor behind the Lul is only a Safek?
Rav Huna himself told Raba his son that he had indeed taught that blood found behind the Lul is Vaday Tamei; in front of the Lul, is only Safek Tamei.

According to Rav Huna too, the Din of Perozdor in the Mishnah refers only to the part of the Perozdor which is behind the Lul.

(d) According to Abaye, if we follow the Chazakah, then the blood at the back of the Perozdor will be Tamei Vaday (since it must have come from the Mekor), and the blood found in front of the Perozdor is Vaday Tahor, because it must have come from the Aliyah (it is not clear why, unless we say that Abaye learns that the Sugya is speaking about the top of the Perozdor, and, as the Gemara will explain later, the blood found there always comes from the Aliyah).
Whereas if we suspect that the blood at the front of the Perozdor is Safek Tamei, because she may have leaned forward, allowing the blood to flow from the Mekor to the front of the Perozdor, then, by the same token, we ought to suspect that the blood found at the back of the womb, may have come from the Aliyah whilst she was lying on her back, and which should then be Safek Tamei and not Vaday.

(a) No! Nobody holds that they bring a Korban for blood which is found in front of the Lul.

(b) Yes! Rami bar Shmuel and Rav Yitzchak b'Rebbi Yehudah can conform with Rebbi Chiya, who says that behind the Lul is Vaday Tamei; because he is speaking at the floor of the Perozdor, which is where the blood falls naturally when it leaves the Cheder. They follow the Chazakah, and therefore do not suspect that maybe she lay on her back etc. But if the blood is found on the roof of the Perozdor, then even if it is behind the Lul, she is only a Safek Tamei. Why?

Because, if the blood had come from the Cheder, it should have flowed onto the floor of the Perozdor; since it was found on the roof, it could just have well have fallen from the Aliyah as from the Cheder, so there is no Chezkas Tum'ah.

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