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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Nidah 16



(a) When Rav says that 'Chosheshes le'Vesta ve'Chosheshes li'Re'iasah', what he means is, that if the Veses preceded the Mei'es Le'es of the sighting, then she must reckon from the time of the Veses; whereas if the Mei'es Le'es of the sighting preceded the Veses, then she must reckon Tum'ah from then.

(b) Rav mentions that the woman saw blood, even though he holds that Vestos are d'Oraysa, because he wants to teach us the Din of 'Chosheshes li'Re'iasah'.

(c) Rav could hold that Vestos are de'Rabbanan, and we only contend with her Veses, because she saw blood afterwards, otherwise, we would not do so.

(a) Rav could hold that Vestos are d'Oraysa; nevertheless, she is Tehorah, if she did not see blood afterwards, because we are speaking in a case when she made the Bedikah immediately, in which case, had she seen blood when the Veses arrived, she would have found blood when she searched; since she did not, it is clear that the Orach did not come in its time.
Above, where Rav said that she is Temei'ah, he is speaking when she did not examine herself immediately afterwards.

(b) Shmuel maintains that, even if she *did* examine herself and not find blood immediately, the Chazakah of 'Orach bi'Zemano Ba' over-rides that.

(c) The Gemara concludes that in fact, Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel holds that, although the blood that emerges on account of the wound is not considered to be the blood of Nidus, the woman is nevertheless Temei'ah to be Metamei whoever touches it, but for one day, - not because of Nidaus, but because the Torah considers all blood that passes through the Mekor to be Tamei.
Rebbi, who comes to be lenient (not strict, as would appear from his words) maintains that either the blood is the blood of Nidus, or it is not; if it is not, then the woman is Tehorah, and so is the blood.

(a) According to Beis Shamai, she must be Bodeik all the Eidim the next day. The reason for all the Eidim, is because we suspect that the Zera of the next Bi'ah may cover the blood - still in the womb (according to Rashi), so that, when she makes her final Bedikah, the blood will not show on the Eid. Consequently, she needs to make a Bedikah after each Bi'ah.

(b) Beis Hillel argue that if we are concerned about that, we may as well be concerned that the Zera of the same Bi'ah covered over the Zera, and where will we draw the line?

(c) But Beis Shamai reply that it is only the second Zera which will smother the blood to the extent that it will not be visible on the Eid, not the Zera of the same Bi'ah.




(a) Since even Beis Hillel require a Bedikah at the end of all the Bi'os, it is clear that they are worried that perhaps she saw blood because of Tashmish. If so, someone who has a high quota of Yir'as Shamayim will ensure that there is a Bedikah before each Bi'ah.

(b) Rava argues that Beis Hillel are speaking about Taharos, but not for her husband, as we learnt above.

5) Chazal permitted Tashmish without Bedikah, provided the Eidim are available for Bedikah (for Taharos) at the end. But if the Eidim got lost, then they did not permit Bi'ah at all until one makes a fresh Bedikah.


(a) Rebbi Yochanan learns from the Pasuk "ve'ha'Layla Amar Horeh Gaver" that night-time is for conception, and not day.

(b) Resh Lakish learns it from "Bozeh Derachav Yamus"; We find the word 'Derech' pertaining to Bi'ah ("Derech Gever be'Almah" - Mishlei.) What the Pasuk is therefore telling us is that improper behavior during Tashmish - such as doing it in the day - leads to disgust, since he may see something on her that disgusts him, and will come to despise her on account of it.

(c) Resh Lakish learns from Rebbi Yochanan's Pasuk that the angel in charge of conception is called 'Horeh'. He takes the drop from which the baby will be formed, places it before Hashem, and asks Hashem whether the baby will turn out to be strong or weak, wise or foolish, rich or poor - because all of these are predestined.

(d) Rebbi Chanina omits the question 'Rasha O Tzadik' because that is not predestined; that lies in the hands of each and every indivual to make that decision for himself.

(e) Rebbi Yochanan agrees with Rebbi Chanina's Derashah. His Derashah (above in a.), he Darshens from the fact that the Pasuk inverts the order of the words "Gaver Horeh", to write "Horeh Gaver". It does so, in order to place Horeh next to Layla, as he explained earlier.

(a) A 'Sar ha'Nargol be'Veis ha'Mishta'os' is a Talmid-Chacham who attends all the parties.
Whereas a 'Sar ha'Nargan', is a Talmid-Chacham who talks a lot. A 'Sar ha'Nargaz' is one who talks vociferously, conveying the impression that he is a base person and drunk.

(b) 'Moshiv Sheves bi'Meromei Keras' is someone who learns with the Talmidim in a high, public place, which looks like swanking, and where they will also be constantly disturbed.

(c) Neither does Ben Sira take too kindly to people who hold their Amah whilst urinating, and those who enter other people's houses without first knocking.

(d) Rebbi Yochanan added that one should not even enter one's own house without first knocking, so as not to surprise the members of one's household, who are perhaps doing something discreet.

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