BACKGROUND ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Nazir 48
1) [line 3] NIG'AM
(a) For a detailed description of how a house becomes a Bayis ha'Menuga (a
house that has Tzara'as), see Background to Nazir 8:15. For a detailed
description of how an article of clothing becomes a Beged ha'Menuga (an
article of clothing that is infected with Tzara'as), see Background to
(b) When a person is a Metzora, he is Metamei the objects in the house that
he is in (if they are of the type that are able to be Mekabel Tum'ah).
Similarly, a house that is declared a Bayis ha'Menuga is Metamei all the
objects that are in it. If the stones of this house are brought into another
house, they are Metamei the objects in the second house. An article of
clothing that is infected with Tzara'as is likewise Metamei the objects in
the house that it is in. All four (Metzora, Bayis ha'Menuga, Even
ha'Menga'as and Beged ha'Menuga) are also Metamei anyone or any object that
touches or carries them.
(c) Regarding a *person* who enters a *house* that has Tzara'as or has a
Metzora in it, the Torah records two verses: 1. "veha'Ba El ha'Bayis Kol
Yemei Hisgir Oso, Yitma Ad ha'Erev." - "And one who enters the house all the
days of its quarantine, will become Tamei until nightfall." (Vayikra 14:46)
2. "veha'Shochev ba'Bayis Yechabes Es Begadav, veha'Ochel ba'Bayis Yechabes
Es Begadav." - "And one who reclines in the house shall immerse his clothes
[in a Mikvah], and one who eats in the house shall immerse his clothes [in a
Mikvah]." (ibid. 14:47)
From the first verse we learn that any person (or object) that comes into
the house becomes Tamei. The clothes that he is wearing, however, do not
become Tamei. From the second verse we learn that if someone lingers in the
house for the amount of time it takes to eat a Pras (half of a loaf of wheat
bread -- see Background to Eruvin 29:6 for what constitutes half a loaf)
dipped in relish, while he is reclining, then even the clothes that he is
wearing become Tamei.
(d) A person or object that becomes Tamei through a person or object that is
infected with Tzara'as (see above, (b)) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah and is
Metamei only food and drinks. He immerses in a Mikvah and becomes Tahor at
nightfall. As our Sugya states, Kohanim and Nezirim, while prohibited from
becoming Tamei through Tum'as *Mes*, are not prohibited from becoming Tamei
through people and things that are infected with Tzara'as (RAMBAM Hilchos
Tum'as Ochlin 16:9).
2) [line 3] ZIVASAM
(a) A Zav (see Background to Nazir 15:7), a man who emits Zov two or three
times (see Background to Pesachim 66:16 for a discussion of the Tum'ah of
the Zav), whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive
days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah.
(b) A Zavah (see Background to Nazir 15:4), a woman who experiences bleeding
during the eleven days that follow the seven days of Nidah, is also an Av
(c) A person who *touches* (Maga) or *carries* (Masa) a Mishkav or Moshav
ha'Zav (see Background to Nazir 15:8) or a Zav or Zavah themselves gets the
status of Rishon l'Tum'ah, and so do the clothes he is wearing and other
utensils (except for earthenware utensils) that he is touching at the time.
He immerses in a Mikvah and becomes Tahor at nightfall. As our Sugya states,
Kohanim and Nezirim, while prohibited from becoming Tamei through Tum'as
*Mes*, are not prohibited from becoming Tamei through people and things that
are Tamei with Tum'as Zivah (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Ochlin 16:9).
3) [line 10] MUFNEH
(a) MUFNEH MI'SHENEI TZEDADIM - If two similar words in the Torah are free
of any Derashah, they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a
Gezerah Shavah between the two topics.
(b) MUFNEH MI'TZAD ECHAD - If only one of the words is free, there is a
Machlokes whether they may be used unconditionally for the inference of a
Gezerah Shavah (Lemedin v'Ein Meshivin), or if they can only be used for a
Gezerah Shavah if we have no logical argument against learning the Gezerah
Shavah (Lemedin u'Meshivin).
(c) EINO MUFNEH KOL IKAR - If both words are used for another Derashah,
there is a Machlokes whether they can only be used for a Gezerah Shavah if
we have no logical argument not to learn the Gezerah Shavah, or if they
cannot be used at all for a Gezerah Shavah.
4) [line 18] "[U']MAKEH NEFESH BEHEMAH [YESHALMENAH; NEFESH TACHAS
NAFESH.]" - "And he who strikes mortally the life of a beast [shall make
restitution; a life for a life.]" (Vayikra 24:18) - i.e. he must pay its
5a) [line 21] HA'METAM'OS B'VI'AH - that make a person Tamei when he comes
into the same room or house where their dead bodies lay, as opposed to the
carcasses of animals that are Tamei with Tum'as Neveilah (see next entry,
(f) and (g)) and not Tum'as Ohel
b) BI'AH (TUM'AS OHEL / TUM'AS NEVELAH)
(a) TUM'AS OHEL - A k'Zayis of the flesh of a *Mes* (corpse) is an "Avi Avos
ha'Tumah" and is Metamei through Maga (contact), Masa (carrying), and Ohel
(being in the same room (lit. tent). An Ohel is defined as a covered space
that is at least one Tefach in length, width and height). If a person
becomes Tamei by touching a *Mes*, he must wait seven days to go to the
Mikvah. Furthermore, on the third and seventh days he must have Mei Chatas
(water mixed with ashes of the Parah Adumah) sprinkled on him.
(b) In an Ohel ha'Mes, the house or room becomes Tamei even if the Mes is
passing through it and does not stop moving. A person who enters an Ohel
ha'Mes becomes Tamei even if only a bit of his body enters, even when
entering backwards. A Mechitzah (partition) in an Ohel ha'Mes only prevents
the spread of Tum'ah if it reaches the ceiling. (RASH to Keilim 1:4)
(c) The bones of a Mes are only Metamei through Ohel under one of three
conditions: 1. They constitute a quarter of a Kav (Rova Ha'kav); 2. They are
the majority of the human body (whether they are the majority of the *build*
(Rov Binyano) of the body or the majority of the *number* (Rov Minyano) of
248 bones; 3. The bone is a complete skull or a complete spinal column. In
order to be Metamei through Maga and Masa, it is enough for the bone to be
the size of a Se'orah (a grain of barley).
(d) When an object that can be Metamei b'Ohel is located in an Ohel, the
Ohel makes everything in it Tamei and protects anything that is above it
from becoming Tamei. That is, an Ohel is *Mevi* Tum'ah (spreads Tum'ah
inside of it) and is *Chotzetz* from Tum'ah (intervenes between the Tum'ah
and the space above the Ohel, preventing Tum'ah from spreading above it).
(e) However, not all objects that cover Tum'ah are Mevi and Chotzetz. There
are objects that are Mevi and not Chotzetz and other objects that are
Chotzetz and not Mevi and even others that are neither Mevi nor Chotzetz
(Ohalos 8:5). An object that is flying through the air, such as a bird or a
Talis that is carried or caught up by the wind, are not Ohalim and are not
Mevi or Chotzetz, even if they are one Tefach wide.
(f) TUM'AS NEVEILAH - A Neveilah is a carcass of an animal that died without
a Halachic slaughtering. A k'Zayis or more of a Neveilah makes an object
Tamei through Maga (contact) and Masa (carrying). At the time that a person
is carrying a Neveilah, any clothing or utensils (besides earthenware) that
he is touching become Tamei as if the Neveilah itself had touched the
clothing or utensil.
(g) If a person becomes Tamei by touching a Neveilah he can immediately go
to the Mikvah. He becomes Tahor at nightfall and may eat Terumah or Kodshim.
6a) [line 23] AD SHE'LO YOMAR - before you say [that you must learn from a
verse that a Nazir may become Tamei for a Mes Mitzvah -- TOSFOS]
b) [line 23] YESH LI B'DIN - I could learn it from a Kal va'Chomer
7) [line 3] KELALOS - general prohibitions
8) [line 7] O KALECH L'DERECH ZU - or perhaps turn this way, i.e. argue the