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Moed Katan 15

MOED KATAN 14, 15 - anonymously dedicated my an Ohev Torah and Marbitz Torah in Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel.

1) [line 5] GAL AVANIM - a pile, heap of stones
2) [line 5] GALO SHEL ACHAN - the heap of stones that was piled on top of Achan ben Karmi ben Zavdi ben Zerach of the tribe of Yehudah. After Benei Yisrael suffered their first loss during the wars of the conquest of Eretz Yisrael, Yehoshua was told by HaSh-m that the reason for the loss was that one of the people sinned by taking items that were consecrated to HaSh-m. Yehoshua cast lots and discovered that the culprit was Achan. Achan admitted his guilt and was put to death to atone for his sins. A heap of stones was erected over his body as a reminder of the event (Yehoshua 7:1-26).

3) [line 8] ATIFAS HA'ROSH - wrapping the head with a Talis or scarf that also covers the mouth and the end of the nose (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 386:1). This is not practiced today by Ashkenazic Jews (REMA ibid.). However, it is proper to wear one's hat lower, near the eyes (SHACH ibid.)

4) [line 14] MENUDAH LA'SHAMAYIM - people who have been "excommunicated by Heaven", e.g. when it still does not rain after the cycle of 13 public fasts (see Background to Shabbos 24:1)

5) [line 18] "PE'ERCHA CHAVOSH ALECHA" - "[Sigh silently, do not practice any rites of mourning for the dead,] don your Tefilin, [and place your shoes upon your feet. Do not cover your lips, nor eat the bread of other people.]" (Yechezkel 24:17)

6) [line 23] HAVAYAH - the word Yiheyeh regarding the head and Yiheyu regarding clothes (Vayikra 13:45)

7) [line 26] KUMSA V'SUDRA - a hat and a scarf
8) [line 27] "HE'ANEK DOM" - "Sigh silently" (Yechezkel 24:17)
9) [line 28] HA'NEZUFIN LA'MAKOM - that have been scorned by the Omnipresent


[I] MENUDEH/MUCHRAM (NIDUY/CHEREM - excommunication)

(a) A person is put into Niduy for 24 things:
1] One who shames a Chacham who toils in Torah and is worthy to rule in Halachic matters, even after the Chacham has died
2] One who shames a messenger of Beis Din
3] One who calls another Jew a slave
4] A person who did not come to Beis Din at the time appointed for him
5] One who treats one of the Torah laws or Rabbinical laws with disrespect
6] One who did not accept the verdict of the Beis Din is put into Niduy until he complies
7] One who has in his domain something that causes damage is put into Niduy until he removes it
8] One who sells his land to a powerful Nochri is put into Niduy until he accepts upon himself to pay for all damages that will be caused to the Jews who live on the adjoining properties
9] One who testifies against another Jew in the courts of the Nochrim and as a result the Jew's money was taken away, where the ruling was in violation of the principles of Torah Law, is put into Niduy until he pays
10] A Kohen who is a butcher and does not give the priestly gifts (see Background to Megilah 28:1) to another Kohen is put into Niduy until he gives them
11] One who does not keep the second day of Yom Tov outside of Eretz Yisrael
12] One who does Melachah on Erev Pesach after midday
13] One who pronounces HaSh-m's name in vain or in an unnecessary vow
14] One who causes many people to eat Kodshim outside of the places in which it is permitted to eat them
15] One who causes many people to act in a way that causes Chilul Ha'Sh-m
16] One who calculates the months and years and proclaims them outside of Eretz Yisrael
17] One who causes a blind person to stumble, i.e. who causes another person to sin
18] One who prevents the public from doing a Mitzvah
19] A butcher who sold a Tereifah animal
20] A butcher who did not show his knife to a Chacham to be checked (this does not apply today)
21] ha'Maksheh Atzmo la'Da'as
22] One who divorces his wife and then makes a partnership to do business with her, which causes them to come in contact with each other. They are put into Niduy when they come to Beis Din
23] A Chacham about whom bad things are said
24] A person who puts someone else into Niduy unjustly (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh Deah 334:43, based upon the RAMBAM Hilchos Talmud Torah 6:14)
(b) The minimum period of Niduy is thirty days in Eretz Yisrael or seven days in Bavel and elsewhere. If the Menudeh does not repent from his ways he is put into Niduy for a second thirty-day period. If he still does not repent, he is then put into Cherem. The laws of Cherem are much more stringent.
(c) No one may come within four Amos of the Menudeh, except for his wife and family. He is not permitted to eat or drink with other people, nor is he included in a Zimun or any other Mitzvah that requires a quorum of ten men. He may not wash his clothes, shave or take a haircut or wear shoes. Learning and teaching Torah, however, are permitted, as well as engaging in work. The last two are not permitted to a Muchram, who must learn by himself and engage in work to the minimum that will provide him daily sustenance. People may speak with the Menudeh or the Muchram unless Beis Din specifically prohibit it.
(c) Even if the time of the Cherem or Niduy has finished, a person remains in Niduy or Cherem until he is permitted by three commoners or by an expert sage (Shulchan Aruch 334:27 and Rema 334:24)
(a) If a important Torah scholar rebukes someone and says "how Chatzuf (arrogant) is so-and-so" or something similar, then that person is called a Nazuf (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 334:14). Even if he only senses that the great person bears resentment in his heart against him, he must act as a Nazuf (REMA ibid.). The Nazuf should try to distance himself from people out of shame and should not show his face to the one who rebuked him. He should minimize his speech, laughter and business dealings, and show distress before everyone who sees him.
(b) However, the Nazuf is permitted to eat and drink with people, and to ask their welfare (She'eilas Shalom). He also does not have to act in any way like a mourner. He does not have to appease the person to whom he was arrogant. The period of Nezifah concludes automatically; he does not need an official pardon.
(c) The period of Nezifah lasts seven days in Eretz Yisrael and one day in Bavel and elsewhere (Moed Katan 16a).
11a) [line 34] SHONEH - teaches
b) [line 36] SHONEH HU L'ATZMO - he learns by himself
12) [line 37] ZEVUNEI MAYA - selling water
13) [line 37] PIKSA (MAYBE PAKSA) D'ARAVOS - (a) the marketplace of Aravos (RASHI); (b) valley of Aravos (Steppes) in Bavel that lacks water

14a) [line 39] EIMAH - fear, dread, terror
b) [line 39] YIR'AH - awe, fear
c) [line 39] RESES - trembling
d) [line 39] ZI'A - shuddering

15) [line 40] BO'EL NIDAH
A person who has relations with a Nidah becomes Tamei for seven days, like the Nidah herself. His laws of Tum'ah, however, are less stringent. The objects he touches, as well as *Tachtono*, the objects underneath him, have the same status as the objects above a Nidah, namely, Rishon l'Tum'ah, as it states in Vayikra 15:24 (see Nidah 33a, and Charts to Nidah 33:8b). After seven days, he immerses in a Mikvah during the day to complete his purification process.

16) [line 41] BA'ALEI KERYIN (BA'AL KERI) A man who has emitted Keri (semen) becomes a Rishon l'Tum'ah. He may not enter the Machaneh Leviyah (i.e. the Temple Mount), nor may he eat Ma'aser, Terumah or Kodshim. After he immerses in a Mikvah *during the day* he becomes Tahor and may eat Ma'aser and enter Machaneh Leviyah once again (mid'Oraisa - - the Rabanan however prohibited him from entering the Ezras Nashim until nightfall). He remains a "Tevul Yom" until nightfall, after which he may once again eat Terumah or Kodshim.

21) [last line] KEFIYAS HA'MITAH - turning over of the bed (so that he may not sleep in it)


22) [line 1] DEMUS DEYUKNI - (lit. my shape or form, kev'Yachol) a semblance of my essence

23) [line 39] "V'ACHAREI TAHORASO; SHIV'AS YAMIM YISPERU LO." - "And after his purification, they shall count seven days for him." (Yechezkel 44:26)

23) [line 39] SHIV'AS YEMEI SEFIRO
(a) On the day that a Metzora is healed from his Tzara'as, he takes two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar wood, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times on the Metzora. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur is removed from the living bird after it is sent off to the fields.
(b) The Metzora next washes his clothes, shaves all places on his body that have a collection of hair and that are exposed, and immerses in a Mikvah. He is now considered Tahor to the extent that he may enter a settlement, but marital relations are forbidden. He waits seven days (Yemei Sefiro), then once more washes his clothes, shaves and immerses. He is now completely Tahor but is still a Mechusar Kaparah (see Background to Pesachim 90:11). For a description of the order of the Korbanos of the Metzora, see Background to Megilah 8:11:c-e.

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