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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Menachos 71

MENACHOS 71 - Dedicated in honor of the 80th Birthday of Jean Turkel Rafalowicz by the Turkel/Linzer Family. Mazal Tov on reaching this milestone. May you be Zocheh to continue to see Nachas from your children, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren until 120 years!


(a) Rebbi Elazar asked Rebbi Yashiyah who lived in his generation not to sit down until he explained to him from where we know that the Omer permits all crops that have taken root.
Why do we add the words 'who lived in his generation'?

(b) What does "Aviv" mean?

(c) Based on the Pasuk in Vayikra "Aviv Kaluy ba'Eish", what was Rebbi Yashiyah's initial reaction to Rebbi Elazar's request?

(a) How do we refute Rebbi Yashiyah's suggestion? If "Aviv" does not preclude corn that took root from being used for the Omer, what does it preclude?

(b) Shmuel makes the same inference from "me'Hachel Chermesh ba'Kamah" ('La'av mi'Chelal de'Ika de'La'av bar Chermesh').
How do we refute that?
If "Chermesh" does not preclude corn that took root, then what does it preclude?

(c) And Rebbi Yitzchak makes the same inference from "Kamah" ('La'av mi'Chelal de'Ika de'La'av bar Kamah'). How do we refute that? If "Kamah" does not corn that took root, then what does it preclude?

(a) Rava finally learns the Din of Hashrashah from the Pasuk in Mishpatim (in connection with the Sh'tei ha'Lechem) "ve'Chag ha'Katzir Bikurei Ma'asecha Asher Tizra", implying from the time of planting.
What does this have to do with the Omer?

(b) Rav Papa asked Rava why the Omer does not then permit the crops from the time of planting.
What was Rava's reply?

(c) He referred to Rav Papa as 'Sudni', perhaps based on the Pasuk in Tehilim "Sod Hashem li'Yere'av".
What other reason might there be for this?

(a) We have already discussed our Mishnah, which permits harvesting a Sadeh Beis Hashalachin in the valley, provided one does not make a hay-stack out of it.
What did the men of Yericho used to do?

(b) What was the Chachamim's reaction?

(c) What does the Tana permit one to do before the Omer?

(a) How does Rebbi Yehudah qualify the Tana's previous statement?

(b) Rebbi Shimon is more lenient than Rebbi Yehudah.
What does he say?

(c) Our Mishnah also permits cutting the crops before the Omer because of ...

  1. ... saplings. This might be due to the Isur of Kil'ayim.
    What other reason might there be for that?
  2. ... u'Mipnei Beis ha'Aveil u'Mipnei Bitul Beis-Hamedrash'.
    What does this mean?
(d) On what condition does the Tana permit that?
(a) The Tana permits bringing the Omer from sheaves.
What do we learn from "me'Hachel Chermesh ba'Kamah"? Why is that?

(b) What does he say about bringing the Omer from ...

  1. ... dry produce?
  2. ... produce that was cut by day?
(a) How do the Pesukim in Emor "u'Ketzartem es Ketzirah Va'haveisem es Omer") and "Reishis Ketzirchem el ha'Kohen" appear to contradict each other?

(b) How does Rebbi Binyamin in a Beraisa reconcile them?

(c) On what grounds do we query this D'rashah? If not by location, how else might we categorize the Heter to cut the corn before the Omer?

(d) We refute this on the basis of Rebbi Yochanan's D'rashah.
What did Rebbi Yochanan Darshen on the previous Amud that puts paid to that suggestion?

(a) We learned in a Beraisa that the men of Yericho did six things. According to Rebbi Meir, what is the significance of ...
1. ... the first group, who grafted date-palms all day (of Erev Pesach), were Korchin al Shema and harvested their crops before the Omer'?
2. ... the second group, who made haystacks from the crops before the Omer, permitted the branches of carob and Shikmah (a sort of fig-tree)-trees of Hekdesh that grew after the declaration of Hekdesh (even though they grew from Hekdesh) and who, in years of drought, made breaches in their gardens and orchards to feed the poor the fruit that fell from the trees that dropped on Shabbos and Yom-tov' (even though they were Muktzah or because one might climb the tree to and pick more)?
(b) What does the Tana mean by 'Korchin al Sh'ma'?
(a) On what grounds does Rebbi Yehudah object to Rebbi Meir's version of the distinction between the two groups?

(b) So how does Rebbi Yehudah distinguish between the first three things and the second three?

(c) However, he combines harvesting and making haystacks in the first group. What does he replace it with in the second?

(a) Based on this Beraisa, why must the author of the Reisha of our Mishnah be Rebbi Yedudah?

(b) What discrepancy are we now faced with between his ruling in our Mishnah and his ruling in the Beraisa?

(c) We first counter this by pointing out a discrepancy in the Beraisa itself.
What is that?

(d) How do we kill two birds with one stone, and answer both questions with one fell swoop?

Answers to questions



(a) We learned in the Mishnah in Pe'ah that a Nachal, a Shelulis, a public and private road and a public and private path divide a field in two with regard to Pe'ah.
What is the definition of ...
  1. ... 'a Nachal'?
  2. ... 'a Shelulis'?
(b) What is the difference between ...
  1. ... a private road and a public one?
  2. ... a road (Derech) and a path (Sh'vil)?
(c) A private path divides between two fields, provided it is used in winter as well as in summer.
What is the significance of the fact that it is used in winter too?
(a) Finally, the Tana inserts a Sadeh Bur, a Sadeh Nir, Zera Acher and, according to Rebbi Meir, Kotzer la'Shachas to the list. 'Zera Acher' means a field between two wheat-fields for example, that is growing lentils.
What is a 'Sadeh Bur' and a 'Sadeh Nir'?

(b) According to the Chachamim, 'Kotzer la'Shachas' only divides the field if one subsequently plowed it. Why is that?

(c) What does Rebbi Meir then hold?

(d) What does Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan then mean when he equates Rebbi Meir with Rebbi Shimon in our Mishnah?

(a) When Rabah repeated Rebbi Yochanan's statement, Rav Acha bar Huna queried it from a Beraisa (in connection with Pe'ah) which discusses 'Achlah Chagav, Karsemuhah Nemalim Shavraso ha'Ru'ach'.
Why does the Tana use the expression 'Achlah' in connection with the locusts, and 'Karsemuhah' in connection with the ants?

(b) How does the Tana conclude? Who does 'ha'Kol' refer to?

(a) How does Rav Acha bar Huna therefore establish the Mishnah in Pe'ah and the Beraisa respectively, to explain why Rebbi Meir concedes to the Rabbanan in the latter? With which Tana in our Mishnah does this appear to conform?

(b) Why is that? What problem does Rav Acha bar Huna have with Rebbi Yochanan's explanation?

(c) Bearing in mind that Rebbi Meir is speaking about cutting the corn for human consumption, what problem does that create in equating him with Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah (as we then suggest)? Why can Rebbi Yehudah not be speaking about cutting the corn for human consumption?

(d) How do we know that there are only two opinions in the Mishnah, and that Rebbi Yehudah comes to explain the Tana Kama and not to argue with him?

(a) When Rav Dimi arrived from Eretz Yisrael, he established Rebbi Meir like Rebbi Akiva his Rebbe, who argues with the Chachamim in a Mishnah in Pe'ah with regard to 'ha'Menamer Sadeihu Ve'shiyer bo Kelachim Lachim'.
What does that mean?

(b) Rabbi Akiva holds 'Ha'menamer Sadeh ... Pe'ah le'Chol Echad ve'Echad'.
Why is that? What would he say if the corn had fully grown?

(c) What do the Chachamim say?

(a) What distinction does Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel draw between 'Menamer li'Kelayos' and 'Menamer le'Otzar'?

(b) Ravin Amar Rebbi Yochanan disagrees.
What does he say?

(c) How does this clash with Rebbi Meir?

(d) So how do we conclude? With which Tana does Rebbi Meir concur?

Answers to questions

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