ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Menachos 72
(a) Our Mishnah learns from the Pasuk "Reishis *Ketzirchem*" (and not
"ha'Katzir") - that the prohibition of cutting the crops before the Omer doe
s not pertain to 'K'tzir Mitzvah', such as for a Beis Aveil or a
Beis-Hamedrash, as we learned there.
(b) This might also pertain to 'Kotzrin Mipnei ha'Neti'os' - assuming that
one is permitted to cut them in order to avoid Kil'ayim.
(c) The reason for that might also be - due to the fact that the crops of
that location are not eligible for the Omer (as we already explained).
(d) The Tana then forbids leaving them as tied sheaves - in order to make a
Shinuy (to restrict the concession by doing it in an unusual way).
(a) Bedi'eved, our Mishnah permits bringing the Omer from barley that has
already been cut, from dry barley and from barley that was cut by day. The
Tana learns all three - from "ve'Im Takriv" (written in connection with the
Omer) - because, the fact that the Torah writes later in the same Pasuk
"*Takriv* es Minchas Bikurecha' renders the first "Takriv' superfluous.
(b) The Tana also learns 'Kol-Shehu' and 'mi'Kol Makom' from the same
source. 'Kol-Shehu' refers to barley that has already been cut, 'mi'Kol
Makom' - to barley that grew far Yerhushalayim. Both are Kasher in case of
(c) Besides the obligation to cut the Omer even on Shabbos (should Pesach
fall on Friday), we also learn from there - that in case of emergency, the
Kohen may even bring the Omer that became Tamei.
(a) The Mishnah in Megilah permits two 'Avodos' to be performed at
night-time. One of them is cutting the Omer, the other - the burning of the
Chalavim and the Eivarim.
(b) The Tana presents the principle - that all Mitzvos that are performed
specifically by day may be performed all day; whereas those Mitzvos that are
performed by night, may be performed all night.
(c) We learn from the Hekesh of the Mitzvos that are performed by night to
those that are performed by day - that just as the latter are Pasul even
Bedieved, so too are the former, clashing with our Mishnah - which validates
Niktzar ba'Yom Bedieved.
(d) We reconcile the two by establishing the author of the Beraisa as Rebbi
Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, whereas the author of our Mishnah - is Rebbi.
(a)If the Omer became Tamei as the Kohen was bringing it, assuming that no
other barley is available, both Rebbi and Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon agree
that one tells the Kohen - to better remain silent and to continue with what
he is doing (due to the Limud from "ve'Im Takriv that we just learned).
(b) If however, there is more barley available, Rebbi rules that he has to
bring it - even if the barley has not yet been cut, and it means cutting it
now (in daytime).
(c) Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon disagrees with Rebbi, because he holds
that - all the Torah's specifications regarding the Omer apply Bedieved too
(and it is therefore forbidden to cut the Omer in daytime).
(a) Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan establishes Rebbi Elazar
b'Rebbi Shimon like ...
1. ... his father's Rebbi, Rebbi Akiva, who rules in the Mishnah in Pesachim
(in connection with the B'ris Milah) - that any Melachah that could have
been performed before Shabbos, does not override Shabbos (if it was not).
(b) This proves that Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon must hold that if the Omer
is cut not according to the Torah's specification, it is Pasul (not like our
Mishnah) - because otherwise, it would not override Shabbos (like Rebbi
Akiva, as we just explained).
2. ... Rebbi Yishmael, who Darshens the Pasuk "be'Charish u'va'Katzir
Tishbos" to mean - that Katzir, like Charish (which is always Reshus [not a
Mitzvah]), does not override Shabbos, when it is Reshus, precluding Katzir
shel Mitzvah (i.e. that of the Omer, which overrides Shabbos.
(c) The problem with the reference to Rebbi Akiva as the Rebbi of Elazar
b'Rebbi Shimon's father is - that this implies that Rebbi did not enjoy the
same distinction; whereas we know that Rebbi learned under Rebbi Shimon,
making Rebbi Akiva his Rebbe's Rebbi too.
(a) Rebbi testified that, when the Talmidim were learning before Rebbi
Shimon in Teko'a, and he needed oil and a towel whilst bathing - they would
bring him these articles via the Chatzer, the roof-tops and the enclosures
along the way ...
(b) ... because they are all considered one domain as far as Keilim that
were lying in one of them when Shabbos enters is concerned.
(c) So we equate Rebbi with another statement of Rebbi Shimon - who permits
burning the Chalavim and the Eivarim throughout Shabbos, even though they
may still be burned after nightfall, due to the principle 'Chavivah Mitzvah
be'Sha'atah' (that a Mitzvah is more precious when it is performed in its
right time Lechatchilah).
(a) By equating Rebbi with that statement of Rebbi Shimon, we have explained
why Rebbi holds that even a Mitzvah that could have been performed before
Shabbos, overrides Shabbos if it was not.
(b) But this poses a Kashya on Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon - who must have
known this, yet he would have forbidden cutting the Omer on Shabbos if not
for the fact that it may not be cut beforehand.
(c) To answer this Kashya, we justify Rebbi Shimon's stringent ruling by
Ketziras ha'Omer, by differentiating between the burning of the Chalavim and
the Eivarim only overrides Shabbos - which only overrides Shabbos because we
already had no choice but to override Shabbos with regard to the Shechitah
(since that cannot be performed in advance), and it (seeing as it does not
share this distinction).
(d) Seeing as Rebbi cannot deny this distinction, we are forced to say that
since Ketziras ha'Omer is Kasher by day - it does not override Shabbos.
(a) We reconcile our conclusion that, according to Rebbi, the cutting of the
Omer does not override Shabbos ...
1. ... with the various Mishnahs in 'Kol ha'Menachos' earlier, which discuss
how the Omer was brought on Shabbos (e.g. 'va'Chachamim Omrim, Echad Shabbos
ve'Echad Chol, mi'Shalosh Hayah Ba)' - by establishing them not like Rebbi.
(b) We query this however, from a Beraisa, which learns from the word
"be'Mo'ado" - written in connection with both the Tamid and the Pesach,
"be'Mo'ado, Afilu be'Shabbos ... Afilu be'Tum'ah'.
2. ... with our Mishnah 'Niktzar be'Yom, Kasher ve'Docheh es ha'Shabbos' -
by establishing the Mishnah (which clearly follows the opinion of Rebbi, not
with regard to the cutting of the Omer, but) - with regard to Hakravah
(which cannot be performed earlier).
(a) The Tana then learns from the Pasuk "Eileh Ta'asu la'Hashem
*be'Mo'adeichem*" that the same applies to other Korbenos Tzibur, and from
the Pasuk there "Vayedaber Moshe es *Mo'adei* Hashem el B'nei Yisrael" -
that it also incorporates the Omer and that what comes with it, and the
Sh'tei ha'Lechem and that what comes with them.
(b) 'That what comes with it/them' comes to include - the lamb that
accompanies the Omer and the two lambs that accompany the Sh'tei ha'Lechem.
(c) This cannot refer to the Hakravah of those items - since the Sh'tei
ha'Lechem are eaten by the Kohanim and not sacrificed.
(d) So we suggest that it refers ...
1. ... to grinding and sifting the Sh'tei ha'Lechem.
2. ... cutting the Omer (posing a Kashya on our interpretation of Rebbi, who
holds that the cutting of the Omer does not override Shabbos).
(a) To answer the Kashya, we establish the Din of the Omer overriding
Shabbos with regard to baking, which must take place on Shabbos - because
that is what sanctifies the loaves.
****** Hadran Alach 'Rebbi Yishmael' *****
(b) And, unlike the cutting, it could not take place before Shabbos -
because once it has been sanctified, it will become Pasul be'Linah (by
remaining intact overnight).
(c) We already discussed the Beraisa where, according to Rebbi Elazar
b'Rebbi Shimon, the Kivsei Atzeres sanctify the Sh'tei ha'Lechem only if
both the Shechitah and the Zerikas ha'Dam have been performed li'Sheman.
Rebbi holds ...
1. ... 'Kadash ha'Lechem' also in the case where - the Kohen performed the
Shechitah she'Lo li'Shemah, and the Zerikah li'Shemah.
(d) In any event, Rebbi seems to hold that it is the Shechitah of the lambs
that sanctifies the loaves, and not the oven. Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak
amends the Beraisa to read (not 'Kadash' and 'Lo Kadash' (this latter ruling
pertains to where neither the Shechitah nor the Zerikah was performed
'li'She'mah', but ) - 'Hukbe'u' (which means that those loaves are now
attached to the lambs that were Shechted) and 'Lo Hukbe'u'.
2. ... 'Kadosh ve'Eino Kadosh' - in the reverse case, where he performed the
Shechitah li'Shemah, but not the Zerikah.
(e) The ramifications of 'Hukbe'u' are - that the loaves may no longer
accompany any lambs other than these.
***** Perek ve'Eilu Menachos Nikmatzos *****
(a) The Tana Kama of our Mishnah lists Minchas So'les, Machavas, Marcheshes,
Chalos, Rekikin, Ovdei-Kochavim, Nashim, ha'Omer, Chotei and Kena'os - as
the Menachos that require a. Kemitzah and b. the Shirayim to be eaten by
(b) Rebbi Shimon includes a Minchas Chotei of Kohanim among the Menachos -
that require Kemitzah, even though the two parts are then brought on the
Mizbe'ach (independently, and not eaten).
(c) The Chachamim hold - that any Minchah that is not eaten, does not
require a Kemitzah to be taken from it either, but is burned whole on the
(d) When Rav Papa says that whenever this list appears it always
incorporates ten types of Minchah, it comes to exclude - Rebbi Shimon, in
whose opinion there are eleven, in that he incorporates a Minchah comprising
half loaves and half wavers (as we learned above).
(a) The Torah explicitly writes - that the Shirayim are eaten by the Kohen,
by the first five cases in our Mishnah, but not by the others.
According to Rebbi Shimon, the Pasuk "ve'Chol Minchah Belulah ba'Shemen
va'Chareivah le'Chol B'nei Aharon Tih'yeh" is not needed for itself, since
we already know that the Kohanim receive a portion of all the Minchos Chitin
(as we just explained). Chizkiyah therefore explains that from ...
(b) And we include a Minchas Ovdei-Kochavim and a Minchas Chotei - from the
Pasuk "ve'Zos Toras ha'Minchah ... ve'ha'Noseres Mimenah Yochlu Aharon
(c) It is obvious that, according to the Rabbanan, the Shirayim of a Minchas
Chotei is also eaten by Kohanim - because the Torah requires a Kemitzah to
be taken from it.
(d) Consequently, when we ask 'Minalan' - we must be referring to Rebbi
Shimon, in whose opinion the Torah does not necessarily equate the Kemitzah
with the Kohanim eating the Shirayim.
1. ... "Be'lulah ba'Shemen" - we incorporate the Minchas ha'Omer (which
consists of barley and which contains Shemen) in the Din of Minchas Chitin,
whose Shirayim are given to the Kohanim; whereas from ...
2. ... "va'Chareivah" - we learn that the same applies to Minchas Kena'os
(which consists of barley and which does not contain Shemen).