ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Menachos 67
(a) Gilgul Hekdesh, Rava continues, is Patur - meaning that if Hekdesh
kneads a dough, it is exempt from Chalah.
(b) The Mishnah in Chalah - obligates taking Chalah in a case where someone
declares his dough Hekdesh and then redeems it ...
1. ... both before kneading it ...
(c) The Tanur exempts the dough from Chalah however - in a case where the
owner redeems it after the treasurer of Hekdesh has kneaded it.
2. ... and after having kneading it.
(a) Rava asks whether the kneading of a Nochri will also exempt a dough from
Chalah. The Mishnah in Chalah - exempts a Ger from Ma'asering a dough that
he kneaded before he converted, but obligates him to Ma'aser one that he
kneaded after he converted.
(b) Where the Ger is unsure as to when he kneaded it - he is obligated to
separate Ma'asros (due to the principle 'S'feika d'Oraysa le'Chumra').
(c) We now query who is the author of this Mishnah. Given that Rebbi Meir
and Rebbi Yehudah in the Mishnah (in D'mai) that we discussed earlier, learn
from the first "Degancha" 've'Lo Digun (Miru'ach) Hekdesh' - they learn from
the second "Degancha" that 'Digun Nochri is Chayav (due to the principle
'Ein Miy'ut Achar Miy'ut Ela Lerabos').
(a) Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Yehudah include the Digun of a Nochri and exclude
that of Hekdesh (and not vice-versa) - because the latter is more similar to
that of a Yisrael inasmuch as it too, does not require redemption.
(b) From the two times that the Torah writes "Arisoseichem" in Parshas
Sh'lach-Lecha we learn - 've'Lo Iysas Nochri' and 've'Lo Iysas Hekdesh'
(unlike the previous Limud, regarding Ma'asros, this Limud refers
specifically to the dough belonging to Hekdesh and to the Nochri, and not to
a Yisrael [see Shitah Mekubetzes, end of 1).
(c) Alternatively, the author is Rebbi Yossi and Rebbi Shimon, who exempt
Digun Nochri from Ma'asros. Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Yehudah may well dispute
this - because they might learn a 'Gezeirah- Shavah "Reishis Arisoseichem"
(Korach) from "Reishis Degancha" (Shoftim written in connection with
(d) After requesting a reply through She'eilas Chalom, Rava came to his own
conclusion - that whoever exempts Gilgul Akum, exempts Miru'ach Akum, and
whoever obligates Gilgul Akum, obligates Miru'ach Akum.
(a) Rav Papa queries Rava from another Beraisa, where the Tana invalidates a
Peter Chamor and Chalah that a Nochri designated (permitting him to retain
the former, and to feed Zarim the latter).
(b) We extrapolate from there - that if he were to separate Terumah, it
would be forbidden to Zarim.
(c) Rav Papa tries to prove from here - that even the Tana who forbids
Miru'ach Nochri, permits his Gilgul.
(a) And Ravina queried Rava from yet another Beraisa, where the Tana rules -
that the Chalas Eretz Yisrael and Terumas Chutz la'Aretz of a Nochri are not
valid (i.e. he does not need to give them to a Kohen, his Chalah may be
eaten by Zarim, and his Terumah does not forbid the Chulin into which it
(b) Once again, we extrapolate from there - that his Terumas Eretz Yisrael
would be forbidden to Zarim, and would forbid the Chulin into which it fell.
(c) Ravina asks from there on Rava - exactly the same Kashya as Rav Papa
(d) We answer these Kashyos - by establishing the Chiyuv Terumah as being
mi'de'Rabbanan (but mi'd'Oraysa, the Nochri's Terumah will not be valid,
like Rebbi Yossi and Rebbi Shimon, who exempt Digun Nochri from Terumah).
(a) The Tana's reason for the decree is because of 'Ba'alei Kisin', which
might refer to rich men, who purchase produce from Jewish merchants - and
who might jump to the conclusion that what one buys from Jewish merchants is
Patur from Ma'asros (just like what buys from Nochrim).
(b) It might also refer to wealthy land-owners - who, we are afraid, will
hand over their fields to Nochrim (see Shitah Mekubetzes 15), to perform the
Miru'ach, in order to exempt them from Ma'asros).
(c) The Tana nevertheless permits the Nochri's Chalah (even mi'de'Rabbanan
[and is not afraid of Ba'alei Kisin there, too]) - because there, one has
the option of baking less than the Shi'ur Chalah (five Reva'im of flour
plus), which is Patur from Chalah anyway.
(a) Rebbi Oshaya permits bringing the crops into the house together with the
chaff (without having performed Miru'ach) - in which case one will be
permitted to feed one's animals (see Tosfos DH 'K'dei' and Shitah Mekubetzes
(b) The reason for this leniency is - either because grain still in its
chaff resembles animal food, which is not subject to Ma'asros, or because
since the produce is covered with the chaff, it does not 'see' the doorway
of the house as it passes through it, and any produce that does not 'see'
the doorway is Patur from Ma'asros.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk "Ve'achlu bi'She'arecha Ve'save'u" - that crops
are only subject to Ma'asros if they pass through the gate of the Chatzer
(but not if they are brought into the house via the roof or via an enclosure
[which avoid passing through the Chatzer]).
(d) Nevertheless, we afraid of the Ba'alei Kisin, (in spite of these options
of avoiding having to give Ma'asros) - because whereas the option of
kneading less than the Shiur Chalah is performed discreetly, the options
regarding Ma'asros, are performed in public, and most people would be too
embarrassed to employ them.
(a) Our Mishnah describes the way the Omer was prepared in a K'li Shareis.
The Kohen first poured some of the oil into the K'li before adding the flour
(and placing the Levonah at the side of the K'li [Tif'eres Yisrael]).
(b) Next - he added the remainder of the oil, and mixed it with the flour.
(c) Finally, he performed the Tenufah, the Hagashah - the Kemitzah and the
Haktarah (see Tosfos DH 'Yatzak u'Balal').
(d) The Shirayim of the Omer - was eaten by the Kohen (inside the Azarah).
(a) Immediately after the Omer had been brought, they found the markets of
Yerushalayim - full of flour made from roasted grains of corn (Kali), that
had obviously been cut before the Omer was brought.
(b) According to Rebbi Meir, this was not done with the consent of the
Chachamim - who forbid cutting the new corn before the Omer has been brought
(in case one comes to eat it).
(c) Rebbi Yehudah - permits it, because he does not suspect the people of
eating Chadash before the Omer has been brought.
(a) In the Mishnah in Pesachim, Rebbi Yehudah maintains that, someone who
failed to search for Chametz ...
1. ... either on the eve or on the morning of the fourteenth of Nisan - is
obligated to do so during the sixth hour of the day.
(b) The Chachamim - permit (even obligate) him to search for Chametz on
Pesach itself, if necessary.
2. ... even during the sixth hour of the day - is forbidden to search any
more, in case he comes to eat the Chametz that he finds.
(c) The problem with Rebbi Yehudah is - that he appears to contradict
himself. There he is afraid that one might come to eat the Chametz at a time
when it is forbidden, whereas here he is not worried that one might come to
eat the Omer before the Omer has been brought.
(d) Rabah tries to answer the Kashya - by ascribing Rebbi Yehudah's lenient
view here to the fact that the Chachamim only allowed cutting the corn
before the Omer with one's hands, but not using a scythe (a reminder not to
eat it after it has been picked).
(a) Abaye objects to Rabah's answer, on the basis of the fact that the
Chachamim also permitted the crops to be ground and sifted - and how does
one do *that* with one's hands?
(b) We answer - by suggesting alternative unusual methods regarding those
processes (i.e. grinding it in a small hand-mill and sifting it using the
back of the sieve.