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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Menachos 44



(a) A Beraisa writes that the Chilazon bears some resemblance to the sea (perhaps in color). Shape-wise, says the Tana - it resembles a fish.

(b) It appears - from under the ground (see Gilyon ha'Shas).

(c) One produces the Techeiles - from its blood.

(d) It is so expensive - because it only appears once every seventy years.

(a) According to Rebbi Nasan in a Beraisa - even the smallest Mitzvah (i.e. an Asei [see Agados Maharsha and Rashash]) is rewarded both in this world and in the World to Come.

(b) To illustrate the reward for Mitzvos in this world, the Beraisa cites the story of a man and a prostitute. When this man heard about a prostitute in a distant land who charged four hundred gold coins for her services - he sent her the money in advance and booked a date to visit her.

(c) When he arrived, he gained entry to her room - via her maidservant, who informed her of the arrival of her client.

(d) When the prostitute invited him to join her, he found seven tiered beds, ready made, six of silver, the seventh of gold, with ladders leading from one to the other. On the top bed lay the prostitute waiting for him.

(a) After he undressed and climbed to the top bed to join her - his Tzitzis miraculously struck him on the face ...

(b) ... because he kept the Mitzvah of Tzitzis with great care.

(c) When he promptly climbed down and sat on the floor - the prostitute did likewise.

(d) She thought that he had changed his mind -because he found a blemish on her, and she challenged him to show it to her.

(a) He swore - that he had never seen such a beautiful woman as her ...

(b) ... but that his G-d had commanded them a Mitzvah by the name of Tzitzis, by which the Torah wrote twice "Ani Hashem Elokeichem" - once as a warning that G-d would punish those who sinned, and once as a promise that He would reward those who kept His Mitzvos, and what's more, the four Tzitziyos now appeared to him like four witnesses.

(c) She was so impressed, that, before allowing him to leave, she demanded from him in writing his name, his city - the name of his Rebbe and of the Beis ha'Medrash where he studied Torah.

(a) Before leaving Rome, she sold her property and divided it into three parts - one third for the state, one third for charity and one third she took with her to Eretz Yisrael.

(b) She needed to leave one third for the state - because otherwise they would never have given her permission to convert to Judaism.

(c) Having sold all her property, the only household article that she took with her to Eretz Yisrael (over and above the third that she took in the form of money) was - the sheets that she had spread for her client.

(d) At first, Rebbi Achya (see also Tosfos DH 'le'Beis Medrasho') was hesitant to accept her as a Ger - because he suspected that she was motivated by the love of a Jewish man, and was not therefore, sincere.

(a) Rebbi Achya changed his mind - when she produced the note that the man had written her, and told him the story behind it, convincing him that her Geyrus was le'Shem Shamayim (because, on account of the miracle that had occurred, she acknowledged Hashem's greatness).

(b) He reacted to that - by converting her and giving her his blessings to marry the man.

(c) And as for the sheets, he told her - that for the same man for whom she had spread them be'Isur, she could now spread them be'Heter.

(d) For his dedication to the Mitzvah of Tzitzis - the man received in this world - the sheets (plus the woman who came with them [see also 'Tzon Kodshim']). As for the World to Come, Rebbi Nasan concludes, he has no clue as to the extent of the reward there.

(a) Rav Yehudah rules that a borrowed Talis - becomes subject to Tzitzis only after thirty days.

(b) A Beraisa corroborates this ruling. The Tana there rules that someone who dwells in an inn in Eretz Yisrael or who rents a house in Chutz la'Aretz - is Patur from fixing a Mezuzah for the first thirty days, but becomes Chayav from then on. The latter is not Chayav immediately, because up to thirty days, a person is liable to retract at any time.

(c) Someone who rents a house in Eretz Yisrael however - is Chayav to fix a Mezuzah immediately, to encourage him to remain, due to the Mitzvah of 'Yishuv Eretz Yisrael' (inhabiting Eretz Yisrael).

(d) This is based on the Halachah that someone who leaves a house is forbidden to take down the Mezuzah that is there. Consequently, the bother of replacing the one that he fixed, will encourage him Not to leave. And even if he does, the fact that there is a Mezuzah on the door will attract tenants to replace him.

(e) In any event, we see from this Beraisa - that up to thirty days, people tend to change their minds regarding what they rented or borrowed, but more than that, not, thereby supporting Rav Yehudah's initial ruling concerning a borrowed Talis (see also Tosfos DH 'Talis).

(a) Rav Chisda initially qualifies our Mishnah 'Tefilah shel Yad Einah Me'akeves es shel Rosh ... ' by confining it to where he actually possesses both Tefilin.

(b) He later denied having said it - because it is not feasible that Chazal would stop a person from performing one Mitzvah, because he is unable to perform two.

(c) And the reason that he initially said otherwise is - because he thought that they would nevertheless have prohibited him from laying the one, to encourage him to obtain the other (which he might otherwise not bother to do).

(a) According to Rav Chisda, someone who fails to lay Tefilin negates - eight Mitzvos Asei.

(b) This might refer to "Ve'hayah Lecha le'Os" (in 'Kadeish'); "Ve'hayah le'Os, u'le'Totafos" (in 'Ve'hayah Ki Yevi'acha'); "u'Keshartem le'Os", "ve'Hayu le'Totafos" (in 'Sh'ma'); "u'Keshartem le'Os", "ve'Hayu le'Totafos" plus "ve'Samtem" (in 'Ve'hayah im Shamo'a'). The more simple explanation - includes "u'le'Zikaron Bein Einecha" in Kadeish, in place of "Ve'samtem" (so that there are two Asei in each Parshah).

(c) Rav Chisda also lists five Mitzvos Asei for someone who wears a four-cornered Beged without Tzitzis. Four of them are contained in the Parshah of Tzitzis in Sh'lach-Lecha: "Ve'asu", "Ve'nasnu", "Ve'hayah", "Ve'hayah" and "u'Re'isem". The fifth is - "Gedilim Ta'aseh Lach" (in Ki Seitzei).

(d) Finally, he lists three Mitzvos Asei for a Kohen who does go to 'Duchen' when he is called, and two for someone who fails to fix a Mezuzah on his door. The ...

1. ... three Asei that the Kohen transgress are - "Ko Sevarchu", "Amor Lahem" and "Ve'samu es Sh'mi" (all in Naso).
2. ... two Asei does that someone who lives in a house (a room) without a Mezuzah transgresses are - "u'Chesavtam" (in 'Sh'ma') and "u'Chesavtam" (in 'Ve'hayah im Shamo'a')
(e) Based on a Pasuk in Yeshayah, Resh Lakish states that someone who lays Tefilin - will live long.



(a) Our Mishnah rules that the flour and oil of a Minchas Nesachim, on the one hand, and the wine, on the other - are not Me'akev one another.

(b) When the Tana says that the Matanos on the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon are not Me'akev one another, he is referring - to the four Matanos of the Chatas (because as long as the Kohen performed one Matanah, the Korban is Kasher).

(c) The source for this ruling is - the Pasuk in Re'ei "ve'Dam Zevachecha Yishpoch al Mizbach Hashem Elokecha" (implying one Matanah).

(a) The Beraisa discusses the order of the Menachos and the Nesachim.
1. The Tana Kama there learns from the Pasuk "u'Minchasam ve'Niskeihem" - that the Minchah of a Minchas Nesachim precedes the Nesachim.
2. Whereas Rebbi learns from the Pasuk "Zevach u'Nesachim ... " - that the Nesachim follow the Zevach, and only then does one bring the Minchah.
1. Rebbi learns from "u'Minchasam ve'Niskeihem" - that even though one brought the Zevach by day, one is permitted to bring the Minchah and the Nesech by night or even the following day (see Tosfos DH 'Minchasam ve'Niskeihem' [though this does not seem to explain why the Torah places "Minchasam" before "Niskeihem"]).
2. The Tana Kama learns from "Zevach u'Nesachim ... " - that the Nesachim only become sanctified with the Shechitah of the Zevach (and not before).
(c) The ramifications of this latter ruling are - that prior to the Shechitah of the Zevach, one may transfer the Nesachim that one designated for that particular Korban, to another Korban.
(a) The Minchas Nesachim can only be sacrificed on the following day if a. it was not originally brought together with the Zevach - and b. it was not placed in a K'li Shareis prior to nightfall (because if it was, it becomes Pasul be'Linah with the advent of nightfall).

(b) We reject the Beraisa's interpretation of the Machlokes between Rebbi and the Rabbanan - on the grounds that the respective Pesukim are needed for the D'rashos that we just presented.

(c) The Chachamim therefore learn from the Pasuk "Olah u'Minchah" - that the Minchah follows immediately after the Zevach, and then comes the Nesech ...

(d) ... and Rebbi too agrees with that.

(a) This forces us to conclude that Rebbi and the Chachamim are not arguing over a Minchas Nesachim that comes together with the Zevach, but over a Minchas Nesachim that is brought independently.

(b) The Rabbanan now give the Minchah precedence over the Nesachim - because it has precedence over it when it is brought together with Zevach.

(c) Rebbi disagrees with them, because in his opinion, one should give precedence to the Nesachim - because it is over it that one sings Shirah.

(d) And the reason that the Torah gives the Menachos precedence in the case of Minchas Nesachim when it comes together with the Zevach is - in order to juxtapose what is eaten next to what is eaten.

(a) Our Mishnah rules that the bulls - are not Me'akev each other, neither are the rams nor are the lambs

(b) According to Rebbi Shimon, in a case where there is sufficient money to purchase many bulls and rams, but not their Nesachim - the Kohanim should rather purchase one bull together with its Nesachim.

(c) The Tana Kama cannot be referring to the bulls and lambs of the Musaf of Sukos - since the Torah writes there "ka'Mishpat" or "ke'Mishpatam", implying that all the animals are Me'akev each other (see Tosfos DH 'ka'Mishpat ke'Mishpatam').

(d) So he must be referring - to those of the Musaf of Rosh Chodesh and Shavu'os (see Tosfos DH 'Ela de'Rosh Chodesh').

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