ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Menachos 35
MENACHOS 35 - anonymously dedicated by an Ohev Torah and Marbitz Torah in
Baltimore, Maryland, formerly of Ramat Beit Shemesh, Israel.
(a) Rav Chananel Amar Rav - invalidates Tefilin, if the order of the
Parshiyos has been changed.
(b) Abaye qualified this - confining it to changing the inside Parshiyos to
the outside or vice-versa (but permitting Tefilin whose two inside Parshiyos
or two outside Parshiyos have been switched).
(c) Rava objects to Abaye's qualification - on the grounds that there is no
reason to distinguish between a Parshah which now sees the air instead of
K'sav, or vice versa, and a Parshah which now sees the left hand side
instead of the right, or vice versa.
(d) Consequently, he concludes - both are Pasul.
(a) Rav Chananel Amar Rav lists the Titura as 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai'.
The 'Titura' - is the base of the Tefilin to which the Bayis is fixed, which
protrudes on all sides from the Bayis, and which resembles the plank of a
bridge (as this is what the word means).
(b) Abaye adds the Ma'abarta and the 'Shin' to the list. The 'Ma'abarta' -
is the section of the Titura, which extends in front of it, through which
one pulls the straps whichever way one wishes (which is what the word
(c) The Chumra that he adds with regard to the Charitz (the cuts that divide
the four Batim of the shel Rosh) is - that they must reach the Titura.
(d) Rav Dimi from Neherda'a disagrees. In his opinion, this is not necessary
(as long as they are discernible).
(a) Abaye maintains that before beginning to write Tefilin - the Sofer
should examine the K'laf for holes.
(b) According to Rav Dimi from Neherda'a - this is not necessary, since the
quill will discover the holes as the Sofer writes.
(a) The Beraisa ...
1. ... forbids using straps made of silk or of linen - only the same species
as the Tefilin themselves.
(b) The Tana forbids red straps - because people might think that they
became dyed red from the blood of sores that festered, or because his wife
sat on them when she was a Nidah.
2. ... permits using straps that are colored green, black or white.
(c) Rebbi Yehudah recorded one episode concerning a Talmid of Rebbi Akiva -
who wore straps of Techeiles (dark-blue wool) and another concerning a
Talmid of Hurkenus the son of Rebbi Eliezer - who wore straps of
(d) He try to prove from there - that one may even use straps of a different
kind, since otherwise, Rebbi Akiva and Rebbi Eliezer would never have
(a) The Chachamim countered Rebbi Yehudah's proofs - by arguing that in
fact, Rebbi Akiva and Rebbi Eliezer were not aware of what happened.
(b) We reconcile the ruling of the Rabbanan with Rebbi Yitzchak, in whose
opinion black straps are 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai' - by establishing the
Beraisa with regard to the inside of the straps (but not the front, which
must be black).
(c) Even though the Tana is speaking about the insides of the straps, he is
nevertheless concerned about 'G'nai ve'Davar Acher' - because sometimes, the
strap becomes twisted, and the inside is exposed to view.
(a) The source given by the Beraisa for the Halachah that Tefilin must be
square is - 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai'.
(b) When Rav Papa explains ...
1. ... 'be'Tafran', he means - that the Sofer should take care not to spoil
the Tefilin's squareness by stretching the stitches too taught.
(c) The Mishnah in Megilah rules that round Tefilin - constitute a danger
and that one is not Yotzei the Mitzvah.
2. ... 'ba'Aleksunan', he means - that the length should tally with the
breadth (by ensuring that the diagonal is one and two fifths times the
length and times the breadth.
(d) Round Tefilin are dangerous - because the person wearing them might
knock his head as he enters a low doorway, and cause the Tefilin to pierce
(e) Rav Papa refutes the proof from there that Tefilin must be square -
because by 'round', the Tana may mean that the base (the Titura) is oval and
pointy (but round Tefilin, with a regular base, may well be Kasher).
(a) Rav Huna validates Tefilin - for as long as the Bayis remains whole.
Once a hole appears, they are Pasul.
(b) Rav Chisda draws a distinction between two - which us still Kasher, and
three - which is Pasul.
(c) Rav qualifies the last ruling - by confining it to where the two holes
did not occur in adjacent Batim (but if they occurred in the first and
second, the second and third or the third and the fourth Batim, the Tefilin
are indeed Pasul). Alternatively, he means - that the two holes are facing
each other, creating one hole that penetrates two of the inner walls of the
Tefilin. But as long as the holes do not 'see each other', the Tefilin are
(d) That ruling in turn, is confined to new Tefilin, but not to old ones -
where the holes are a matter of age, and are not a sign of inferior
quality leather (the source of the P'sul).
(a) When Abaye asked Rav Yosef to define 'new' and 'old' in this regard, he
replied - that this can be determined by stretching the Bayis until the
Batim separate. If they return to their original shape, then the Tefilin are
considered old; if not, then they are considered new (see also Shitah
(b) Alternatively, he told him, one can determine it by pulling on a thin
strip of leather that protrudes from the Bayis. If the Tefilin follow (or
stretch), then they are new; but if the strip snaps off, then they are old.
(a) When Abaye's Tefilin-strap snapped, Rav Yosef forbade him to tie the
ends together - because the Torah writes "u'Keshartam" (Keshirah Tamah),
implying that it must look nice.
(b) When he asked whether he may then stitch them - he instructed him to go
and see what people do (and people tend not to do that either) ...
(c) ... even if he were to move the stitch to the back, where it would not
(a) 'Gardumei Retzu'os' - are what remains of the Tefilin straps after the
Shi'ur has torn off.
(b) Rav Papa ruled - 'Gardumei Retzu'os Kesheiros'.
(c) We refute this however, based on b'nei Rebbi Chiya, who declared
Gardumei Techeiles and Gardumei Eizov (for a Parah Adumah) only to be
Kasher. They did not include 'Gardumei Retzu'os' in their list - because
whereas the former are Tashmishei Mitzvah, Tefilin-straps are Tashmishei
Kedushah (which require the full Shi'ur even Bedieved).
(a) Evidently then, the Retzu'os of Tefilin have a Shi'ur. Rami bar Chama
Amar Resh Lakish gives it as 'Etzba Tzeradah'. 'Etzba Tzeradah' is - the
forefinger (which is the acronym of 'Tzarah de'Da' ( the rival of this one
(b) When we say that ...
1. ... Rav Kahana demonstrated 'Kafuf', we mean - that he demonstrated the
distance between the extended middle and fore-fingers.
(c) Rabah would throw the straps over his shoulders and let them hang behind
him; Rav Acha bar Ya'akov would plait them together. Mar b'rei de'Ravina
used to - let them hang in front of him, just like we do.
2. ... Rav Ashi demonstrated 'Pashut', we mean ... the distance between the
extended thumb and forefinger (which is considerably wider than the middle
and fore-fingers, explaining why we refer to the latter as 'stretched', and
the former, as 'bent').
(a) According to Rav Yehudah b'rei de'Rav Shmuel bar Shilas in the name of
Rav, the source of the Kesher shel Tefilin is - 'Halachah le'Moshe
(b) Besides the fact that the 'Daled' of the shel Rosh and the 'Yud' of the
shel Yad should be facing outwards, when Rav Nachman says 've'Noyeihen
le'Bar', he might also mean - that the beautiful (painted) part of the
Retzu'ah should be facing outwards.
(c) We prove the second explanation to be the correct one - from the episode
that follows, which specifically mentions 've'noyeihen le'Bar' in connection
with a twisted strap.
(d) When Mar Zutra, pointing out that Rav Ashi's Retzu'os were twisted,
queried him from 've'Noyeihen le'Bar', he responded with 'La'av Ada'ata'i',
meaning that he had not realized that they were.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer interpreted the Psauk "Ve'ra'u Kol Amei ha'Aretz ki Sheim
Hashem Nikra Alecha ve'Yar'u Mimeka" - in connection with the Tefilin
(b) And Rav Chana bar Bizna Amar Rebbi Shimon Chasida learns from the Pasuk
"Va'hasirosi es Kapi, Ve'ra'isa es Achorai" - that Hashem showed Moshe the
knot of His Tefilin (for Hashem [Kevayachol] wears Tefilin, as we learned in
(c) The fact that the Kesher shel Tefilin are placed ...
1. ... on the head (and not on the neck) - signifies that Yisrael too, will
be 'up' and not 'down'.
(d) This is the meaning of 'K'lapei Panim'. Alternatively, we read these
words as 'K'lapei P'nim', in which case they would mean that the knot should
be on the inside, allowing the letters of Hashem's Name to face outwards (as
we learned earlier).
2. ... opposite the face (and not at the side of the head) - signifies that
they will be 'in front' and not 'at the back'.
(a) Initially, we understand the statement said in the name of Rav, Rav Huna
or Shmuel 'Tefilin Mevarech Aleihen mi'Sha'as Hanachasan' to mean - that one
recites the B'rachah after having put them on.
(b) We have a problem with that however, from a ruling of Rav Yehudah Amar
Shmuel, who says - that Birchos ha'Mitzvos must be recited 'Over
la'Asiyasan' (immediately prior to their performance).
(c) So Abaye and Rava explain the original statement to mean - after the
Tefilin have been put in place, but they have been tightened and adjusted
(which is the main part of the Mitzvah).