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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Menachos 28



(a) We cite a discrepancy between the Beraisa currently under discussion ('she'bi'Fenim ve'she'bi'Metzora she'Lo li'Sheman Pesulos, she'Lo Mechuvanos, Kesheiros') and another Beraisa, which rules (in connection with Metzora) - 'bein she'Lo li'Sheman, bein she'Lo Mechuvanos, Kesheiros'.

(b) Initially, Rav Yosef answers by establishing the Beraisa which invalidates she'Lo li'Shemah by Metzora according to Rebbi Eliezer - who learns from Chatas (via the Hekesh "ka'Chatas ka'Asham"), that Asham she'Lo li'Shemah is Pasul too.

(c) We extrapolate from there - that, by the same token, Rebbi Eliezer will also include the Log Shemen shel Metzora (which is sprinkled together with the blood of the Asham) in the P'sul, by means of the Hekesh "es Keves Echad Asham ... ve'Log Shamen", thereby establishing Rebbi Eliezer as the author of our Beraisa.

(d) The problem with Rav Yosef's answer is - that it contravenes the principle that, in the realm of Kodshim, one cannot learn one Hekesh from another .

2) Rava therefore establishes both Beraisos like the Rabbanan. When he says ...
1. ... 'Ka'an Lehartzos', he means - that the Haza'os of a Metzora she'Lo li'Shemo are Pasul as regards rendering the Metzora Yotzei (to permit him to re-enter the Kahal and to eat Kodshim).
2. ... 'Ka'an Lehachshir', he means that they are Kasher as far as the oil itself is concerned, and the Kohanim are permitted to eat it.
(a) The Tana Kama of our Mishnah rules that each of the seven branches of the Menorah, the seven lamp-holders, the two Parshiyos of the Mezuzah, and the four Parshiyos of the Tefilin - is crucial.

(b) We learn from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "u'Chesavtam" - (which is the acronym of 'Kesivah Tamah') that if even one letter is missing from a Mezuzah, the Mezuzah is Pasul.
2. ... "*Ve'hayu* le'Totafos" - that the same applies to Tefilin.
(c) The four Parshiyos of the Tefilin - (by each of which is written either "le'Totafos" or "le'Zikaron bein Einecha"), are 'Sh'ma', 'Ve'hayah im Shamo'a, 'Kadeish' and 'Vehayah ki Yevi'acha'.

(d) The Tana Kama includes the four Tzitzis on the four corners of one's garment in the list - because in his opinion, they are all part of one Mitzvah. Rebbi Yishmael considers them four independent Mitzvos, in which case, one corner is not Me'akev the other.

(a) We learn from the Pasuk (in connection with the Menorah) "Kaftoreihem u'Kenosam Mimenu *Yih'yu*" - that each of the seven branches is crucial.

(b) The Beraisa requires the Menorah to be made of an Eshes of gold, and not with G'ruta'os.

1. An 'Eshes' - is a 'lump'.
2. ... 'G'ruta'os' - are 'pieces'.
(c) The distinction the Tana draws between the Din of gold and that of 'Eshes' is - that the former applies only Lechatchilah, the latter, even Bedieved.
(a) We learn from the fact that the Torah writes in Terumah "Mikshah" and 'Havayah' - that a Menorah of G'ruta'os is Pasul even Bedieved.

(b) We learn from the word "Te'aseh" there, that even it is made of other metals, it is also Kasher. Otherwise, we would have thought that it is Pasul - seeing as the Torah writes "Zahav" and 'Havayah', just as it writes "Mikshah" and 'Havayah'.

(c) The problem with these two D'rashos is - why we do not learn the other way round (that Zahav is Pasul even Bedieved, and G'ruta'os is Kasher (because of "Te'aseh")?

(d) We counter the suggestion that the Torah repeats "Mikshah" in order to teach us that G'ruta'os is Me'akev - by pointing out that the Torah also repeats "Zahav".

(a) We conclude that we have no choice but to learn that Zahav is not Me'akev and that G'ruta'os is (as opposed to the reverse) - because that will enable us to Darshen "Zahav" "Zahav" and "Mikshah" "Mikshah" (as we shall now see).

(b) Now that we permit other metals Bedieved, the Tana learns from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Kikar Zahav Tahor Ya'aseh Osah ... " - that it is only when the Menorah is made of gold that it must comprise one Kikar (three thousand Shekalim). Otherwise, it need not do so.
2. ... "Ve'asisa Menoras Zahav Tahor ... Gevihehah, Kaftorehah u'Perachehah" - that, by the same token, it is only when the Menorah is made of gold that it must been adorned with goblets, balls and flowers; otherwise, not.
(c) We cannot however, by the same token, Darshen 'Ba'ah Zahav, Ba'ah Kanim, Lo Ba'ah Zahav, Lo Ba'ah Kanim' - because a candlestick without branches, is called a 'Pamot', not a 'Menorah'.

(d) And we learn from the Pasuk "ve'Zeh Ma'aseh ha'Menorah Mikshah Zahav" - that it is only when the Menorah is made of gold that it needs to be 'Mikshah'; otherwise, even G'ruta'os will do.

(a) We learn from "Mikshah *Hi*" in the Seifa ("ad Yereichah ad Pirchah Mikshah Hi") - that only the Menorah requires Mikshah, but not the Chatzotzros (the trumpets).

(b) We learned in a Beraisa that the trumpets were made of silver and that Lechatchilah, they had to be beaten out of one solid lump. The Tana maintains that they were Pasul even Bedieved - if they were made of any other metal ...

(c) ... and we learn this from the combination of "Kesef" and 'Havayah' (" ... Sh'tei Chatzotzros *Kesef ... Vehayu* Lecha Lemikra ha'Eidah ... ").

(d) We do not also invalidate a trumpet made of G'ruta'os, from the combination of "Mikshah" and 'Havayah' - because Mikshah *Hi* by the Menorah precludes the trumpets from Mikshah being Me'akev, as we just explained (as if to say that 'Havayah' that is written by the Chatzotzros pertains to "Kesef" but not to "Mikshah").




(a) All the Keilim that Moshe made, says the Beraisa, were Kasher for future generations - except for the Chatzotzros.

(b) The initial problem with learning this from the Pasuk in "Asei *Lecha* Sh'tei Chatzotzros Kesef" is - that the Torah also uses the same expression with regard to the wooden Aron that Moshe made (before Betzalel built the Mishkan).

(c) The two possible connotations of "Lecha" regarding the wooden Aron of Moshe are - either that it had to be Moshe's personal property, or that Hashem would have wanted it to be Moshe's personal property, if communal Keilim could belong to an individual.

(d) We do not however, Darshen "Lecha" by the trumpets in the same way - because the word "Lecha" appears there twice.

(a) Rav Papa b'rei de'Rav Chanin cited a Beraisa in front of Rav Yosef, permitting the Menorah to be made of silver. The Beraisa rules that a Menorah of ...
1. ... tin, of lead or of Gistron (brass or metal), is subject to a Machlokes between Rebbi (Pasul) and Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah (Kasher).
2. ... wood, bone or glass - is Pasul according to both opinions.
(b) On the assumption that both Tana'im Darshen 'K'lal u'P'rat u'K'lal' (as we will explain shortly), Rav Papa b'rei de'Rav Chanin explains the Machlokes - that Rebbi learns from the P'rat that it must be made of metal, whereas Rebbi Yossi b'rei de'Rav Yehudah learns that it must be Chashuv.

(c) Rav Yosef commented on this - that Rav Papa b'rei de'Rav Chanin should replace his own version of the Beraisa with his (Rav Yosef's).

(d) According to him - Rebbi Darshens (throughout the Torah) 'K'lal u'P'rat u'K'lal', whereas Rebbi Yossi b'rei de'Rebbi Yehudah Darshens 'Ribuy, Miy'ut ve'Ribuy'.

(a) Seeing as, according to Rav Yosef, "Menoras" is a K'lal, "Zahav Tahor" a P'rat, and "Mikshah Te'aseh ha'Menorah" a K'lal, Rebbi Darshens - that the Menorah must be made of metal (like Rav Papa b'rei de'Rav Chanin explained according to Rebbi) ...

(b) ... whereas Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah Darshens the same Pasuk as a 'Ribuy, Miy'ut ve'Ribuy' - that we include everything except for earthenware, which the Miy'ut excludes.

(c) Rav Yosef proves his interpretation to be the authentic one - by citing another Beraisa which corroborates his version.

(d) In the latter Beraisa, Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah validates a Menorah of wood, Rebbi validates - a Menorah of silver, copper, iron, tin and lead.

(a) Another Beraisa forbids making a house (i.e. a room) of the same proportions as the Heichal, an Achsadra of the proportions of the Ulam or a Chatzer of the proportions of the Azarah. A house comprises four walls and a roof, an Achsadra three walls and a roof, and a Chatzer, four walls but without a roof.

(b) The two Keilim which the Tana also includes in the list are - the Shulchan and the Menorah.

(c) There is no problem with the Menoros that we make on Chanukah - since they are of eight branches.

(d) One would be permitted to make a Menorah even with seven branches, according to ...

1. ... Rebbi - if it was not made of metal.
2. ... Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Yehudah - if it was made of earthenware.
(a) Shmuel, quoting that old man, describes the Menorah, which was eighteen Tefachim tall. The bottom three Tefachim of the central shaft consisted of the base (incorporating the three feet on which it stood) and a flower.

(b) Following ...

1. ... two plain Tefachim was - one Tefach comprising a goblet, a Kaftor and a flower (side by side).
2. ... another section of two plain Tefachim - was one Tefach containing a Kaftor, from which two branches branched out until they were level with the top of the central shaft, a plain Tefach, a second Kaftor from which two branches branched out, another plain Tefach, and a third Kaftor ... .
(c) After another two plain Tefachim, the final three Tefachim comprised - a goblet, a Kaftor and flower.

(d) The goblets, the Kaftorim and the flowers - were all carved out of the same piece of gold as the Menorah itself.

(a) The ...
1. ... goblets - were elongated.
2. ... Kaftorim - were oval-shaped (like the apples of the Karsi'im).
(b) The flowers are described as - those that were patterned on the pillars.

(c) There were twenty-two goblets, eleven Kaftorim - and nine flowers on the Menorah.

(d) The numbers are significant in that - each one was crucial to the Avodah.

(a) Seeing as there were four goblets on the central shaft of the Menorah, we arrive at twenty-two - by adding three to the top of each branch (together with a Kaftor and a flower).

(b) We learn from the Pasuk "Kaftorehah u'Ferachehah" - that two Kaftorim and two flowers adorned the central shaft of the Menorah.

(c) Despite the fact that two ...

1. ... Kaftorim adorned the central shaft, in addition to one at each of three points where a set of branches joined the Menorah, we arrive at eleven - because there was one additional Kaftor on top of each branch.
2. ... flowers adorned the central shaft, plus one on top of each branch together with a goblet and a Kaftor, the source for the ninth flower is the Pasuk - "ad Yereichah ad Pirchah Mikshah Hi", as Rav Salman points out.
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