POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Menachos 84
1) PRODUCE THAT IS FIT FOR THE "OMER"
(a) The Tana'im (of the Mishnah and Beraisa) only argue about
Chadash, all agree that it must be from Eretz Yisrael -
they argue with the following Tana:
2) PRODUCE THAT IS FIT FOR "BIKURIM"
1. (Beraisa - R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah): The Omer may be
brought from Chutz la'Aretz;
(b) (Mishnah): People guarding Sefichim (produce that grows
by itself) in Shemitah (for the Omer) are paid from
i. "Ki Savo'u El ha'Aretz" teaches that the
obligation to bring it starts when Yisrael will
enter Eretz Yisrael (not that it must be
brought from Eretz Yisrael.)
2. He holds that mid'Oraisa, Chadash is forbidden in
i. He expounds "Mi'Moshvoseichem" - wherever you
dwell; "Ki Savo'u" - the obligation starts upon
entering Eretz Yisrael.
(c) Contradiction (Rami bar Chama): A Mishnah teaches that
people guarding Sefichim are paid from Terumas
ha'Lishkah, and a Beraisa teaches "(Shemitah produce is)
L'Achlah" - not to burn (how can the Omer be brought from
Shemitah, a Kometz is Huktar?)!
(d) Answer (Rav Chisda): It says "L'Dorosam" to teach that we
bring the Omer even in Shemitah.
(e) Question (Rami bar Chama): I agree that it is brought - I
ask, why don't we bring it from the previous year's
(f) Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): It must be Karmel (soft).
1. Question: We could use moist produce of the previous
(g) R. Yochanan taught like Rav Chisda, it must be soft.
2. Answer: It says "Karmel Takriv" - it must be soft at
the time it is offered.
(h) Answer #2 (R. Elazar): "Reishis Ketzircha" - it must be
the beginning of its harvest, not the end.
(i) Question (Rabah - Beraisa): "V'Im Takriv Minchas Bikurim"
- this refers to the Omer, it comes from barley;
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it comes from wheat!
(j) R. Yochanan is refuted (Tosfos - also R. Elazar is
refuted, he learned from a different verse.)
2. Rejection #1 (R. Eliezer): It says here "Aviv", the
name of the month of leaving Miztrayim;
i. Just like Aviv of Mitzrayim refers to (the
season to harvest) barley, also Aviv of the
3. Rejection #2 (R. Akiva): Individuals bring
obligatory Menachos of wheat (Minchas Chotei) and of
barley (Minchas Sotah) - the Tzibur brings Menachos
of wheat (e.g. Shtei ha'Lechem) and of barley;
i. If the Omer would be wheat, the Tzibur would
never bring barley.
4. Rejection #3 (R. Akiva): If the Omer would be wheat,
the Shtei ha'Lechem would not be Bikurim (the first
of its species - but the Torah calls it Bikurim!)
(a) (Mishnah): We do not bring Bikurim other than the seven
species (of Eretz Yisrael), nor from dates that grow in
the mountains nor fruits that grow in canyons (they are
(b) (Ula): If they were brought, they are not Kodesh.
3) CAN INFERIOR PRODUCE BECOME "BIKURIM"?
(c) Question (R. Acha bar Aba - Beraisa): "Korban Reishis" -
Shtei ha'Lechem must be the first Minchah (from Chadash);
1. It also says "B'Hakrivchem Minchah Chadashah la'Sh-m
(d) Answer: The Seifa (of the Beraisa, 'Things that grow on
the roof...') refers to Menachos (but they are Pesulim
for Bikurim. Alternatively - the Seifa of "Bikurei Kol
Asher b'Artzam" (the last three words) refer to Menachos,
not to Bikurim.)
2. Question: This only teaches that Shtei ha'Lechem
must be the first Minchah from Chadash wheat - what
is the source that a Minchah of Chadash barley may
not precede it (alternatively - may not precede the
3. Answer: Another verse says "(V'Hikravtem Minchah)
Chadashah" - since we do not need it to teach about
wheat, it teaches about barley.
4. Question: What is the source that Bikurim may not
precede Shtei ha'Lechem?
5. Answer: "V'Chag Shavu'os Ta'aseh Lecha Bikurei
6. Question: That only teaches that Bikurim of wheat
may not precede Shtei ha'Lechem - what is the source
7. Answer: "V'Chag ha'Katzir Bikurei Ma'asecha Asher
Tizra ba'Sadeh" (on Shavu'os, we offer Shtei
ha'Lechem, the first produce.)
8. Question: That only teaches about what was Nizra
(planted) - what is the source for things that grew
9. Answer: "Ba'Sadeh".
10. Question: What is the source for things that grow on
the roof, in a Churvah (ruin), in an Atzitz, or on a
11. Answer: "Bikurei Kol Asher b'Artzam".
12. Question: What is the source that Nesachim and
(Bikurim of other) fruits may not precede Shtei
13. Answer: It says here "Bikurei Ma'asecha", like it
says there (regarding Sukos) "B'Ospecha Es Ma'asecha
i. There, "Ma'asecha" includes wine and fruits
(they are finished and gathered at Sukos) -
also here "Ma'asecha" includes wine and fruits.
14. Summation of question: We learn that things that
grow on the roof, in a ruin, in an Atzitz, or on a
boat can be Bikurim - all the more so, what grows in
the mountains or canyons (which are not so
(e) Question (Rav Ada bar Ahavah): The verse ("Bikurei...")
ends "Kol Tahor b'Veischa Yochalenu", but Menachos may be
eaten only by male Kohanim!
(f) Answer (Rav Mesharshiya) Contradiction: Just before that
it says "Lecha Yihyeh" (for you (Aharon) and those like
you, i.e. males)!
1. Resolution #1 (Rav Mesharshiya): "Kol Tahor
b'Veischa" refers to Bikurim, "Lecha Yihyeh" refers
2. Resolution #2 (Rav Ashi): The entire verse refers to
(kinds of) Menachos - "Kol Tahor b'Veischa" refers
to (Terumas) Lachmei Todah (a Kohenes may eat them),
"Lecha Yihyeh" refers to Menachos.
(a) Other Amora'im argue about Ula's law.
(b) (R. Yochanan): If mountain dates or canyon fruits were
brought for Bikurim, they are not Kodesh;
(c) (Reish Lakish): They are Kodesh, just like a weak animal
(one should not make it a Korban - b'Diavad, if one did,
it is Kodesh.)
(d) Question: What is R. Yochanan's reason?
(e) R. Elazar: I saw R. Yochanan in a dream - surely, I will
give a good reason!
(f) Answer (R. Elazar): "*Mi*'Reishis" - not all Reishis
(Bikurim applies only to the seven species);
"*Mi*'Artzecha" - not everything in your land (inferior
fruit is Pasul for Bikurim.)
(g) Question: How does Reish Lakish expound "Mi'Artzecha"?
(h) Answer (Beraisa - R. Gamliel bar Rebbi): It says "Eretz"
regarding Bikurim, and regarding the seven species - this
teaches that Bikurim are brought from the seven species.
(i) Question: What is R. Yochanan's source for this?
("Mi'Reishis" does not teach which fruits to bring!)
(j) Answer: He learns this from "Eretz", he excludes inferior
fruit from the 'Mem'.
(k) Reish Lakish does not expound the 'Mem'.
(l) (Beraisa #1): One may bring Bikurim and Korei (recite
Viduy Bikurim) from the following:
1. Produce that grew on the roof, in a Churvah, in an
Atzitz, or on a boat.
(m) Contradiction (Beraisa #2): One brings Bikurim from these
but does not Korei.
(n) Answer - part 1: Reish Lakish can answer, one brings and
is Korei for produce that grew on the roof of a cave
(this is like regular land), in a plowed Churvah, in an
Atzitz with a hole, or on a Cheres (earthenware) boat
(the produce is considered to be growing in Eretz
Yisrael, because Cheres is made from dirt (Rashi; R. Tam
- there are holes in the Cheres, they are filled with
dirt. Alternatively - the boat is of wood, this allows
moisture and nutrients from the floor of the river to
1. One brings and is not Korei for produce that grew on
the roof of a house, in an unplowed Churvah, in an
Atzitz without a hole, or on a wooden boat (the
produce is not considered to be growing in Eretz
Yisrael (R. Tam - even if there are holes in the
wood. Alternatively, the boat is of Cheres, it does
not allow moisture or nutrients to pass through.)
(o) Question: How can R. Yochanan answer (he says that such
Bikurim are not Kodesh!)?
(p) Answer: Tana'im argue about this (he holds like the
1. (Beraisa): One brings Bikurim and does not Korei for
produce that grew on the roof or in a Churvah;
2. One does not bring Bikurim (at all) from produce of
an Atzitz or a boat.