POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Menachos 54
1) USING APPLES TO FERMENT
(a) (Beraisa): We do not use (R. Gershom - juice of) apples
to ferment (Shtei ha'Lechem or Lachmei Todah);
2) INCREASE AND DECREASE OF VOLUME
(b) R. Chanina ben Gamliel (according to Rav Kahana - R.
Chanina ben Tradyon) says, we may use it.
(c) Question: Who is the Tana of the following Mishnah?
1. (Mishnah): If a Terumah apple was minced and put
into a dough and fermented it, it is forbidden (to
(d) Answer (and rejection of suggestion): It is even like
Chachamim - granted, it does not become proper Chametz,
it does become Chametz Nuksheh (lowly Chametz; R. Gershom
- a hardened dough, it is neither Matzah nor Chametz;
Aruch - Chametz that fermented without Se'or.)
2. Suggestion: It is like R. Chanina.
(e) (R. Ila): The hardest Kemitzah is of Minchas Chotei (it
is pure flour, when wiping away the excess sticking out
(of the three middle fingers) extra flour is prone to
(f) (R. Yitzchak bar Avodimi): (It is not hard -) Minchas
Chotei may be kneaded with water.
(g) Suggestion: R. Ila is concerned for the original volume
(if we would add water, the Kometz would lack (or have an
excess of) the difference in volume of the dough taken
and its flour), R. Yitzchak follows the current volume
(exactly a Kometz is taken, we are not concerned that it
(h) Rejection: No, all follow the original volume;
1. Minchas Chotei is called Chareivah (dry) - R. Ila
explains, it may not have any liquid at all, R.
Yitzchak says, it has no oil (unlike regular
Menachos), but it may have water.
(a) (Mishnah): If calf meat swelled or if meat of an old
animal shriveled, we judge them l'Kemos she'Hen
(according to their original volume).
(b) (Rav (and R. Chiya...)): (The text is) *Kemos* she'Hen
(according to their current volume).
(c) (Shmuel (and R. Shimon bar Rebbi...)): (The text is)
(d) Question (against Shmuel - Beraisa): If calf meat was
less than the Shi'ur for (Kabalas) Tum'ah (i.e. k'Beitzah
(an egg's worth); some explain, the Shi'ur is to become
Hechshar Lekabel Tum'ah; some say it is to Metamei other
food), and swelled to the Shi'ur, it is retroactively
Tahor (i.e. regarding Tum'os before it swelled) and Tamei
for the future.
(e) Answer: Mid'Rabanan it is Tamei for the future
(mid'Oraisa, it is Tahor.)
(f) Question (end of the Beraisa): The same applies to Pigul
1. If mid'Oraisa we follow the current volume (for the
future), this teaches that one is Chayav Kares for
eating a k'Zayis of swelled Pigul or Nosar;
(g) Answer: It means, the same applies to Tum'ah of Pigul and
2. But if we follow the current volume mid'Rabanan, we
cannot say that Chachamim are Mechayev Kares for
(swelled) Pigul or Nosar!
1. One might have thought that since Tum'as Pigul and
Nosar is only mid'Rabanan, they did not apply
another mid'Rabanan stringency (of following the
current volume) to it - the Beraisa teaches they
apply the stringency.
(h) Question (against Shmuel - Beraisa): If meat of an old
animal was a Shi'ur, and shriveled to less than a Shi'ur,
it is retroactively Tamei and Tahor for the future.
(i) Answer: (Rabah): (The argument of the Amora'im is not as
we assumed.) All agree that if at first there was a
Shi'ur and now there is not, (for the future) we follow
1. All agree that if at first there was not a Shi'ur
and now there is, we follow the present
3) TAKING "TERUMAH" ACCORDING TO VOLUME OR NUMBER
2. They argue when there was a Shi'ur, it shriveled to
less than a Shi'ur, and then returned to its
(j) Question: Does anyone really hold that Dichuy applies to
i. Shmuel holds that Dichuy applies to Isurim (and
Tum'os; since one was not liable for it when it
was shriveled, one will never be liable for it
ii. Rav holds that Dichuy does not apply to Isurim.
1. (Mishnah): If k'Beitzah (an egg's worth) of food, or
a k'Zayis of Tum'as Mes or Neveilah, or a lentil's
worth of a Sheretz was left in the sun and it
shriveled to less than a Shi'ur, it loses its Tum'ah
(i.e. ability to Metamei); if a k'Zayis of Chelev
shriveled to less than a Shi'ur, one is not liable
for it for eating Pigul, Nosar or Chelev;
2. If it was left in the rain and returned to its
original size, it is again Tamei/one is liable for
3. This refutes anyone who holds that Dichuy applies to
Isurim (e.g. Shmuel, according to Rabah.)
(a) Question (against - Beraisa): If one is Torem (designates
Terumah or Ma'aser) dates (this refers to moist dates,
unless specified 'dry') on (i.e. to exempt) dried dates,
one tithes according to the number (even though dry dates
are now less than their original volume).
1. This is like Shmuel, who says that we follow the
(b) Answer #1 (to both questions): The Beraisa discusses
Terumah Gedolah, in both cases he tithes generously
(regarding Terumah Gedolah, this is praiseworthy.)
2. But according to Rav, who says that we follow the
current volume, a tenth of the number is more than a
tenth of the volume, this is too much Ma'aser!
i. (Mishnah): If one takes too much Ma'aser, the
produce he wanted to exempt is indeed exempt,
but the Ma'aser must be fixed (only 10% becomes
Ma'aser, it is mixed with Tevel, i.e. the
excess above 10%.)
3. Counter-question: If we follow the original volume,
the Seifa is difficult!
4. (Seifa of Beraisa): To Torem dry dates on dates, one
tithes according to the volume.
i. This is like Rav, who says that we follow the
ii. But according to Shmuel, who says that we
follow the original volume, this is too much!
(c) Objection (Seifa of Beraisa - R. Elazar b'Rebbi Yosi): My
father would take 10 dry dates to exempt 90 moist dates.
1. It is not normal to take a tenth for Terumah
Gedolah, surely this was Ma'aser!
(d) Answer #2: The Beraisa is like R. Elazar ben Gomel:
1. (R. Elazar ben Gomel): "V'Nechshav Lachem Trumaschem
(ka'Dagan Min ha'Goren)" - the verse discusses (and
equates) two Terumos, Terumah Gedolah and Terumas
i. Just like Terumah Gedolah is taken by
estimation and may be designated with mere
intent (without an action or words), also
ii. Just like Terumah Gedolah may be taken
generously (one may take a lot, even though any
amount suffices), also Terumas Ma'aser.