THOUGHTS ON THE DAILY DAF
brought to you by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Har Nof
Rosh Kollel: Rav Mordecai Kornfeld
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MENACHOS 56 (6 Kislev) - Dedicated in honor of the Yahrzeit of Eliezer ben
Reb Shraga Feivel Marmorstein by his nephew, whom he raised like his own
child after the war, Mr. David Kornfeld.
1) KNEADING AFTER KNEADING
QUESTION: Rav Papa says that one who bakes a Minchah that is Chametz is
Chayav for *two* sets of Malkus, one for arranging the loaves (Arichah), and
one for baking (Afiyah). RASHI explains that this is because baking is the
final stage of arranging the loaves. TOSFOS explains that this is because
some arranging is inevitably done at the time of baking.
The Gemara asks that the Beraisa (55b) seems to contradict this when it
calls Afiyah a "Ma'aseh Yechidi," implying that one is Chayav for Afiyah by
itself. The Gemara answers that one case is referring to when one person did
both the Arichah and Afiyah, and the other case is referring to when one
person did the Arichah and another person did the Afiyah.
RASHI explains that Rav Papa is discussing the case in which two different
people arranged and baked the loaves (in which case the one who baked the
loaves is Chayav for two sets of Malkus for the Afiyah), while the Beraisa
is discussing the case in which one person did both actions (in which case
he is not Chayav for two sets of Malkus for baking, since he is already
receiving Malkus for the Arichah that he did before the Afiyah, and the
Arichah that he does during the Afiyah is merely a continuation of his act
TOSFOS explains that Rav Papa is discussing the case in which one person
both baked the loaves and arranged them a bit (in which case he is Chayav
for two sets of Malkus), while the Beraisa is discussing the case in which
the person that baked the loaves did not arrange them at all (in which case
the one who baked the loaves is Chayav only for baking).
Based on this Gemara, we may ask a question, both according to the
explanation of Rashi and the explanation of Tosfos. The Arichah that is done
during the Afiyah is actually the second Arichah that is being done to this
Minchah. The first Arichah that was done was the rolling of the dough and
original shaping of its form. Consequently, Rav Papa is teaching a Chidush
that one who does a second Arichah after a first Arichah was already done is
still Chayav for the second Arichah. Is this true for the other Avodos of
the Minchah as well? For example, if one kneads a dough of Chametz that was
already kneaded, will he be Chayav?
ANSWER: The CHAZON ISH (OC 58:5) says that this does not apply to the other
Avodos of preparing the Minchah. The Chazon Ish points out that the Beraisa
earlier (54b) says that one is Chayav for any "Ma'aseh Yechidi." Rashi
explains that "Ma'aseh Yechidi" means a "Ma'aseh Chashuv Bifnei Atzmo," an
essential act in itself. That is, one is Chayav only for performing a
Ma'aseh that is important in itself. It seems clear from here that if two
people perform Lishah consecutively, the second one will be Patur, since he
did not do any essential preparation of the Minchah. The Chiyuv is not for
merely doing an act of kneading, but rather for doing an act that brings the
Minchah one step closer to its final state. If it was already kneaded by
someone else, the additional act of kneading does not bring the Minchah
closer to its final state.
However, according to this, why should one be Chayav for performing Arichah
after the loaves were already arranged?
The Chazon Ish explains that the Arichah performed during (or, according to
Tosfos, immediately before) the baking process is a new, essential step in
the preparation of the Minchah. If the person performing the Arichah with
the baking is not the one who performed the original Arichah (or, even if he
is the same person, he did not receive a separate Hasra'ah for the second
Arichah), he will be Chayav for this act of Arichah. Only if he also
performed the first Arichah (without a separate Hasra'ah before performing
the second Arichah) will he be exempt for this new Arichah, since it is
considered a continuation of the first act of Arichah (similar to a person
who eats two k'Zeisim of Chelev without receiving Hasra'ah between them). In
contrast, one who performs a second act of Lishah (kneading) to the Minchah
is not Chayav, because that Lishah is not a new, essential step in the
preparation of the Minchah. While it might enhance the first Lishah, it is
not an essential step in itself.
The Chazon Ish adds that the same criteria for determining how many
transgressions a person committed when he repeats an act that was prohibited
applies to the laws of Shabbos as well. He cites the SEFER HA'TERUMOS who
says that when a person adds water, on Shabbos, to a dough that was kneaded
before Shabbos and he kneads it again, he is Patur. Although he is doing an
act of Lishah, his act of Lishah on Shabbos is not a new, essential step in
the preparation of the dough, since the dough was already kneaded.
The Chazon Ish uses this approach to answer a question posed by the CHAFETZ
CHAYIM in BI'UR HALACHAH (OC 321, DH Ein Megavlin). The Bi'ur Halachah cites
Rishonim who express the same view as the Sefer ha'Terumos. The Bi'ur
Halachah questions their view from the Yerushalmi in Shabbos that says that
one who does Arichah or Kituf on Shabbos after the dough was already kneaded
is Chayav. In the laws of Shabbos, the acts of Arichah and Kituf are
included in the Melachah of Lishah, kneading, as the Yerushalmi teaches.
Accordingly, the Yerushalmi is saying that one is Chayav for any act that
enhances the original Lishah! The Bi'ur Halachah understands from there that
just as one is Chayav for enhancing the Lishah by doing Arichah after the
Lishah, one should also be Chayav for enhancing the Lishah by doing another
*Lishah* on Shabbos. This is a difficulty on the view of the Sefer
The Chazon Ish answers that in order for one to be Chayav, one must do an
act which is a "Melachah Chashuvah Bifnei Atzmo," an essential act that is
important in itself. Although one is Chayav for Arichah and Kituf on Shabbos
because of Lishah, those acts are nevertheless new stages in the process of
kneading the dough. Similarly, regarding a Minchah of Chametz, the Arichah
at the time of the Afiyah is a new step, since its place is necessarily with
the baking of the loaves (or as a preparatory step for the baking, as Tosfos
says), and therefore one will be Chayav Malkus for it.
In contrast, one will not be Chayav for doing Lishah after Lishah, because
although it enhances the original Lishah, it is not a new step to be
Mechayev the person a Chatas on Shabbos or Malkus for a Minchah of Chametz.
It is important to note that the Chafetz Chayim himself in ZEVACH TODAH
disagrees with the Chazon Ish. The Chafetz Chayim writes that 6one who does
Arichah after Arichah is Chayav, because he enhanced the Minchah. The
Chafetz Chayim does not maintain that it is necessary to perform a new,
essential step in the production of the Minchah in order to be Chayav. This
is consistent with his own view in the Bi'ur Halachah, where he does not
answer his question the way that the Chazon Ish answers it. (Mordechai Zvi
2) CHAMETZ AFTER CHAMETZ
QUESTION: The Gemara teaches that one is Chayav for causing a Minchah
offering to become Chametz after it has already become Chametz. This means,
as RASHI explains, that one is considered to have transgressed the Isur of
making a Minchah become Chametz when he performs Arichah with a Minchah that
is Chametz, or one who bakes a Minchah after it became Chametz. Rashi
explains that this is what the Gemara means, since it is otherwise
impossible to make something become Chametz when it is already Chametz.
The Gemara derives this from the verses, "Lo Se'aseh Chametz" (Vayikra
2:11), and "Lo Se'afeh Chametz" (Vayikra 6:10), from which we learn that one
is Chayav for each act of making the Minchah become Chametz.
However, there is a problem with understanding the Gemara. Why is performing
Arichah or Afiyah with a Minchah that is Chametz considered to be an act of
causing it to become Chametz? Those acts do not add in any way to the
process of becoming Chametz. Why, then, is one Chayav for "Mechametz"?
ANSWER: The answer seems to depend on the two ways of understanding the Isur
of "Lo Se'aseh Chametz," making a Minchah become Chametz.
(a) RASHI here (DH ha'Mechametz) explains that this Isur involves "any act
that assists in the Chametz process." Similarly, Rashi later (57a, DH
v'Chazar v'Chimtzah) says that this Isur involves "finishing the process of
becoming Chametz by baking it." Rashi prefaces his comments in both places
the word "Kelomar" to denote that the Gemara is not to be understood
literally to be saying that one can cause something that is already Chametz
to become Chametz. Rather, the Gemara is saying that any act that adds to
the preparation of the Minchah is considered to be instrumental in causing
it to become Chametz. This is because the Isur is accomplished by causing
the *Minchah* to become completed in the form of Chametz. Until all of the
preparations of the Minchah have been performed, the Minchah is not
considered to be complete, even though the Chametz process itself is
completed. Any act that adds to the completion of the Minchah is considered
an act that helps in making a Minchah that is Chametz.
(Rashi's understanding of the Gemara is reflected in the wording of the
verses, which say, "Lo Se'aseh Chametz" and "Lo Se'afeh Chametz," instead of
saying, "Lo Sechametz." The verses imply, "Do not make it (the completed
Minchah) Chametz," teaching that every step that contributes to making a
*completed* Minchah of Chametz is forbidden.
Based on this understanding of the Gemara, the CHAFETZ CHAYIM in ZEVACH
TODAH (DH ha'Mechametz) rules that even if a Minchah was already Chametz,
one who causes the Chametz process to continue -- such as by adding more
leavening agent to the dough until the entire Minchah becomes sourdough
(Se'or, a very heavily fermented dough) which is a new level of Chametz
(called "Chimutzo Kasheh") -- is Chayav. This is similar to the Halachah
that the Gemara mentions next when it says that one is Chayav for any
addition to the process of making an animal sterile.
(b) A second way to understand the Isur of "Lo Se'aseh Chametz" can be
inferred from the words of TOSFOS (DH Hini'ach). The Gemara later says that
one who places Se'or on top of the dough of a Minchah, which causes the
Minchah to become Chametz, is Chayav. Tosfos asks that the Torah says "Lo
Se'aseh Chametz," but in this case, one does no action ("Asiyah") that makes
the dough become Chametz. It becomes Chametz only as a result of a different
action that the person does (placing the Se'or on the dough). Tosfos answers
that putting Se'or on the dough is also considered an action ("Asiyah") that
is included in the Isur of "Lo Se'aseh Chametz."
What was Tosfos' original understanding when he asked the question, and what
changed in his understanding in his answer?
The YASHAR V'TOV explains that Tosfos was bothered why one should be Chayav
for the act of causing the Minchah to become Chametz altogether. The Torah
expresses its Isur in terms of *forming* (or making -- "Asiyah") a *Minchah*
that is Chametz; that is, it is forbidden to do actions that complete a
Minchah that is Chametz. The Torah does not explicitly state that it is
forbidden to *cause* the dough of a Minchah to become Chametz. Causing the
dough to become Chametz is not part of *making* the Minchah!
Tosfos answers that causing the dough to become Chametz indeed is part of
making the Minchah. Even though it is the *wrong* way of making the Minchah,
it still constitutes part of the process of making the Minchah. Therefore,
one is Chayav for making the Minchah become Chametz.
From the words of Tosfos it seems that the prohibition is not the process of
causing the dough to become Chametz. Rather, the prohibition is the
formation of a Minchah which is Chametz, as the verses in the Torah imply.
The Gemara calls the Isur "Mechametz" merely because the acts that are done
to form the Minchah bring about a Minchah that is Chametz. The Isur, though,
are the acts that form the Minchah, and not the actual Chametz process.
The YOSEF DA'AS understands that if the Isur is not, "Do not cause the
Minchah to become Chametz," then one who causes the Minchah to turn into a
new type of Chametz (Se'or, as described above) will not be Chayav. The
Torah forbids forming and preparing a Minchah that is Chametz. It is Chametz
whether or not it is Se'or, and thus making it into Se'or is not included in
the Isur. Only the initial act that makes it Chametz, or any act that helps
to form the Minchah itself, is included in the Torah's prohibition.
The Chafetz Chayim, as mentioned earlier, rules that one who makes the
Minchah turn from Chametz into Se'or is Chayav. He seems to maintain that
the Isur is, "Do not cause the Minchah to become Chametz," and, therefore,
any additional Chametz process is included in the Isur. (Mordechai Zvi