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Megilah 23

MEGILAH 21-24 (3rd-6th days of Sukos 5760) - sponsored by Harav Ari Bergmann of Lawrence, N.Y., out of love for Torah and those who study it.

1) [line 1] D'MATZLU ATZLUYEI - they lean towards their sides (so as not to be completely face-down)

2) [line 19] D'NAFISH SIDURA D'YOMA - the order (prayers) of the day are longer
3) [line 21] V'CHAD D'IMEI - and one that is with him (who is not as important as the first)

4) [line 23] SHOMREI HA'SAF - the gatekeepers
5) [line 23] ME'RO'EI PENEI HA'MELECH - among his advisors (lit. those that see the face of the king)

6) [line 24] RO'EI PENEI HA'MELECH - the king's advisors
7) [line 27] YA'AKOV MINA'AH - Yakov the heretic. Tosfos says that the girsa is MITZA'AH, the sheet maker (because the Gemara would not refer to a wicked person by his surname)

8) [line 32] D'MISHLAM B'OVDEI - his deeds are pure (lit., complete)


9) [line 7] TURGEMAN - translator

10) [line 10] PORSIN AL SHEMA - (a) saying Barchu, Kadish, and the first of the two Berachos of Shema (i.e., the one with "Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh") b'Tzibur for the benefit of people who prayed without a Tzibur and left out those Tefilos (RASHI); (b) alternatively, saying the Berachos before Shema in order to be Motzi a person or persons who do not know to say them by themselves (GE'ONIM cited by RAN; see Insights)

11) [line 12] MA'AMAD U'MOSHAV - in certain areas, after burying the dead the funeral escort would walk a bit and then stop and sit down to comfort the relatives of the deceased and to mourn. They would repeat this procedure seven times. (RASHBAM Bava Basra 100b)

12) [line 12] TANCHUMEI AVEILIM (forming a row in the cemetery to comfort mourners)
(a) While a person mourns for a close relative, it is a Mitzvah mid'Rabanan to comfort him by saying "ha'Makom Yinachem Eschem b'Soch She'ar Evlei Zion vi'Yerushalayim" (HaSh-m should comfort you among the mourners of the Beis ha'Mikdash and Yerushalayim) or "Tenuchamu Min ha'Shamayim" (You will be comforted by HaSh-m). The mourners accept Tanchumin at the cemetery after the burial, and in the house of mourning for seven days afterwards. (RAMBAM Hilchos Avel 13:2; Shulchan Aruch Yoreh De'ah #376)
(b) At the cemetery after the burial, the people who came to the funeral stand in rows of not less than ten people and comfort the mourners. The mourners stand to the left of the comforters, and they pass in front of the mourners one by one, giving Tanchumin. (Rambam ibid. 13:1-2)

13) [line 14] BIRKAS CHASANIM - the seven Berachos said during Birchas ha'Mazon at a meal attended by a Chasan and Kalah within their "seven days of celebration."

14) [line 15] KARKA'OS (PIDYON KODSHIM) - redeeming a consecrated object
(a) If a person consecrates (is "Makdish") an object to the Beis ha'Mikdash and that object is of no benefit to the Mikdash "as is," the object may be sold by the appointees of Hekdesh (Gizbarim), who determine its selling price based on the estimate of a group of experts. When a person buys the object from Hekdesh, the object loses its Kedushah and its value becomes Kodesh in its stead. This is called "Pidyon Hekdesh," redeeming from Hekdesh
(b) If the object that is being redeemed from Hekdesh is anything other than land, three experts must be present to determine its value. If the object is land, ten experts, one of the them a Kohen, must be present. The same applies if a person donates his own value to Hekdesh; ten experts, one of them a Kohen, must determine the amount that will pay Hekdesh. (Erchin 19b and Rashi; Rambam Hil. Arachim 8:2)

15) [line 29] BIRKAS RECHAVAH - after burying a dead relative, others would provide the mourners with refreshments or a meal outside (in the street, "Rechavah"), on their way home from the funeral. During the meal, one of those present would recite a blessing, Birkas Rechavah, ending with "Baruch... Menachem Aveilim." (Kesuvos 8b)

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