POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Makos 24
MAKOS 21-24 - Ari Kornfeld has generously sponsored the Dafyomi publications
for these Dafim for the benefit of Klal Yisrael.
1) THE NUMBER OF MITZVOS TO FOCUS ON
(a) (R. Simlai): Moshe heard 613 Mitzvos, 365 Lavim,
corresponding to the days of the (solar) year, and 248
Mitzvos Ase, corresponding to the limbs in a man.
2) EXILE AND REDEMPTION OF YISRAEL
(b) (Rav Hamnuna): He learns from "Torah Tzivah Lanu Moshe" -
the Gematri'a of Torah is 611;
1. Additionally, Yisrael heard two Mitzvos (the first
two utterances) directly from Hash-m, "Anochi..."
and "Lo Yihyeh Lehca".
(c) David gave 11 Mitzvos for people to focus on (Ramah -
through these, Hash-m will help them guard all the
Mitzvos; others explain, these have exceedingly great
reward) - "...Holech Tamim..."
1. Avraham exemplified "Holech Tamim" - "Hishalech
Lefanai ve'Hye Samim";
(d) R. Gamliel would cry when he read "Ose Eleh Lo Yimot
l'Olam" - one who does all these will not falter, one who
only does one will fall!
2. Aba Chilkiya illustrates "U'Fo'el Tzedek" (he would
not even answer 'Shalom' while working);
3. Rav Safra illustrates "V'Dover Emes bi'Lvavo" (he
was offered a certain price for something, and
intended to accept; before he was able to speak, he
was offered more - nevertheless, he sold it for the
price he mentally agreed to);
4. Yakov illustrates "Lo Ragal Al Leshono" - he was
reluctant to deceive Yitzchak (to get the
blessings), even though Rivka told him to according
to a prophecy;
5. "Lo Asah l'Re'ehu Ra" - he did not adopt another's
profession (where this would be unfair competition);
6. "V'Cherpah Lo Nasa Al Kerovo" - he draws his
7. Chizkiyah illustrates "Nivzeh b'Einav Nim'as" - he
dragged his father's bones on a bed of ropes (to
atone for him). (Rashi (Sanhedrin) - Chizkiyah was
lowly in his own eyes, he was willing to disgrace
himself; Rivan - Chizkiyah scorned even his father,
because his father was disgraceful to Hash-m).
8. Yehoshafat illustrates "V'Es Yire'ei Hash-m
Yechaved" - when he would see a Chacham, he would
rise from his throne, kiss him and say 'Avi Avi
9. R. Yochanan illustrates "Nishba Lehara v'Lo Yamir" -
he would accept to fast until he reached home
(merely to avoid eating by the Nasi - in any case,
he kept his oath);
10. "Kaspo Lo Nasan b'Neshech" - he would not even take
interest from a Nochri (lest he come to take from a
11. R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi illustrates "V'Shochad Al
Naki Lo Lakach" (his sharecropper brought R.
Yishmael's normal share a day early because he had
to come for judgment - R. Yishmael refused to take
(e) Rabanan: It does not say 'Ose Kol Eleh', rather, "Ose
Eleh" - one who does even one will not falter!
(f) Support: "Al Titam'u b'Chol Aleh" - you cannot say that
only one who transgresses all of these Arayos is corrupt!
1. Rather, one who transgresses any one of them is
corrupt - likewise, one who has any one of the above
merits will live.
(g) Yeshayah gave six Mitzvos for people to focus on -
1. Avraham exemplified "Holech Tzedakos" - "Yetzaveh
(Es Banav...La'asos Tzedakah u'Mishpat)";
(h) Michah gave three Mitzvos for people to focus on - "Asos
2. "V'Dover Meisharim" - no one is pained by his words
in public (Maharsha; Aruch l'Ner - if he must rebuke
someone, he does so in private).
3. R. Yishmael ben Elisha illustrates "Mo'es b'Vetza
Ma'ashakos" - (he was a Kohen, yet he refused to
take Reishis ha'Gez from a party who came for
judgment, for this would deprive the Kohen who
normally received the man's gifts).
4. R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi (brought above) illustrates
"No'er Kapav mi'Tmoch ba'Shochad";
5. "Otem Azno mi'Shmo'a Damim" - if he hears a Chacham
shamed, he is not silent;
i. (R. Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon was normally very
careful about this; once, he was not, and he
6. (R. Chiya bar Aba): "V'Otzem Einav me'R'os b'Ra" he
shuts his eyes to avoid looking at women doing
laundry (at the river, for they are barefoot);
7. It says about one who fulfills these "Hu Meromim
1. "Asos Mishpat" - this is monetary laws;
(i) Yeshayah later gave two primary Mitzvos - "Shimru Mishpat
2. "Ahavas Chesed" - this is bestowing Chesed;
3. "V'Hatzne'a Leches Im Elokecha" - this is escorting
the dead and bringing a Kalah to Chupah:
i. Even though these are normally done in public,
they should be done modestly - all the more so,
things which are normally done modestly!
(j) Amos gave one primary Mitzvah - "Dirshuni vi'Chyu".
(k) Objection (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): Perhaps Amos
instructs to expound the entire Torah!
1. Rather, Chabakuk gave one primary Mitzvah -
"V'Tzadik be'Emunaso Yichyeh".
(a) (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Moshe made four enactments,
four prophets annulled them:
1. Moshe said "V'Yishkon Yisrael Betach Badad Ein
Yakov" (Rivan - Yisrael will be secure when they are
Tzadikim like Yakov; Ramah - only the elite of Yakov
will have serenity) but Amos said "Chadal Na Mi
Yakum Yakov Ki Katan Hu (we cannot (all) be like
(b) (Rav): I fear "Va'Avadtem ba'Goyim"!
i. "Nichem Hash-m Al Zos" (Hash-m agreed).
2. Moshe said "Uva'Goyim ha'Hem Lo Sargi'a" (Yisrael
will not rest in Galus), but Yeshayah said "Haloch
3. Moshe said "Poked Avon Avos Al Banim", Yechezkeil
said "Ha'Nefesh ha'Chotas Hi Samus".
4. Moshe said "Va'Avadtem ba'Goyim" (Yisrael will be
lost in exile), Yeshayah said "Yitaka b'Shofar
(c) Objection (Rav Papa): Perhaps it means, we will be like a
lost object that the owner is seeking - "Ta'isi k'Seh
Oved Bakesh Avdecha"!
(d) Correction: Rather, Rav feared (the end of the verse)
"V'Achlah Eschem Eretz Oyveichem".
(e) Objection (Mar Zutra): Perhaps Yisrael will be only
partially consumed, like gourds (which are not totally
(f) R. Gamliel, R. Elazar ben Azaryah, R. Yehoshua and R.
Akiva were walking; they heard the clamor of Romi from
120 Mil away. (The other) Chachamim cried, R. Akiva
1. Chachamim: Why are you laughing?!
2. R. Akiva: Why are you crying?
3. Chachamim: They bow and bring incense to idols, they
are serene; the footstool of Hash-m (the Mikdash)
was burned - how can we not cry?!
On to Shevuos
4. R. Akiva: That is why I laugh - if Hash-m gives such
reward to those who transgress His will, how much
greater will be the reward of those who do His will!
(g) On another occasion, they were alighting to Yerushalayim;
when they reached Har ha'Tzofim, they tore their
garments; when they reached Har ha'Bayis, they saw a fox
emerge from the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim. Chachamim cried, R.
1. Chachamim: Why are you laughing?!
2. R. Akiva: Why are you crying?
3. Chachamim: Regarding the Mikdash it says "Veha'Zar
ha'Karev Yumas", now foxes go there - how can we not
4. R. Akiva: That is why I laugh - "V'A'ida Li Edim
Ne'emanim Es Uriyah ha'Kohen v'Es Zecharyah";
i. Question: Uriyah was in the first Mikdash,
Zecharyah was in the second - why does the
verse put them together?
ii. Answer: The Torah connects their prophecies -
Uriyah said "Tziyon Sadeh Secharesh", Zecharyah
said "Od Yeshvu Zekenim u'Zkenos bi'Rchovos
iii. Uriyah's prophecy must be fulfilled before
Zecharyah's - now that I see the fulfillment of
Uriyah's prophecy, I know that Zecharyah's can
be fulfilled any moment! (Anaf Yosef)
5. Chachamim: You comforted us!