ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafEruvin 40
(a) Rava permitted that turnip on Yom-Tov - because he saw that it was
withered, and had evidently been picked before Shabbos.
(b) He was not worried that it may have been brought from outside the
Techum on Yom-Tov - because even if it was, whatever is brought from
outside the Techum for one Jew, is permitted for another, and how much
more so that turnip, which was initially brought in for other gentiles.
(c) But when he saw how, as a result of it, many gentiles began bringing
in turnips on behalf of Jews, he issued a decree forbidding turnips which
arrived in town under similar circumstances.
(a) The Gemara initially objected to Ravina's ruling, permitting gardeners
to smell myrtle-twigs immediately after the termination of the second-day
Yom-Tov (despite the fact that non-Jews had cut them on the second day of
Yom-Tov on their behalf, and the second day of Yom-Tov does not require
'Bichedei she'Ya'asu [to wait the time it would take to perform that
Melachah after the termination of Shabbos], in his opinion) - on the
grounds that it ought to be forbidden, because they were not B'nei Torah
(and would come to treat the second day of Galus lightly).
(b) Rava forbade the gardeners to smell the myrtle-twigs (which the non-
Jews had cut on their behalf) immediately after the termination of the
second-day of Yom-Tov - because in his opinion, even a Melachah that was
performed for a Jew on the *second* day of Yom-Tov, requires 'Bi'chedei
(a) By 'Zikaron Echad Olah le'Kahn u'le'Kahn' - the Gemara means to
suggests that perhaps during Musaf of Rosh Hashanah, it is not necessary
to mention the Korbanos of Rosh Chodesh, because 'Yom ha'Zikaron'
incorporates Rosh Chodesh, inasmuch as the Torah writes (in Beha'aloscha)
with regard to Rosh Chodesh "ve'Hayu Lachem le'Zikaron".
(b) Alternatively, since Rosh Chodesh has its own independent Korbanos, it
also needs to be mentioned independently.
(a) Rebbi Dosa ben Horkinas and the Rabbanan could also be arguing over -
whether one mentions Rosh Chodesh at all (conditionally) during the rest
of the year (on the two consecutive days which are a Safek), since we are
not sure that it is Rosh Chodesh.
(b) The Gemara proves that they must be arguing about whether one makes a
condition or not, because if there Machlokes concerned whether or not, to
mention Rosh Chodesh, why would the Rabbanan forbid this, even in the case
of an ordinary Rosh Chodesh?
(c) Had the Rabbanan and Rebbi Dosa argued only by Rosh Chodesh which is
also Rosh Hashanah - we would have said that they confine their Chumra to
that case, since making the second day of Yom-Tov conditional will cause
people to treat it disrespectfully, because they will think that it is not
really Yom-Tov. But that they will perhaps agree with Rebbi Dosa, that
making the condition on Rosh Chodesh (where the above suspicion does not
apply) is permitted; and conversely, had they argued by Rosh Chodesh only
- we would have thought that Rebbi Dosa is lenient only by an ordinary
Rosh Chodesh, but not by Rosh Chodesh which coincides with Rosh Hashanah,
where he will agree with the Rabbanan, in order to avoid people treating
the second day of Yom-Tov disrespectfully.
(a) Since Beis Shamai holds that, when Rosh Hashanah falls on Shabbos, the
Tefilah comprises ten Berachos, including a separate Berachah for Shabbos
(not included in that of Rosh Hashanah) - it follows that if one were to
mention Rosh Chodesh, it too, would be in the form of an independent
(b) The Gemara is trying to prove from here - that, since Beis Shamai
require only ten Berachos and not eleven, it must be that Rosh Chodesh is
*not* mentioned independently, because 'Zikaron Echad Olah le'Kahn
(c) It may well be, counters the Gemara, that in fact, we *do* mention
Rosh Chodesh in Musaf of Rosh Hashanah - only since Rosh Chodesh is always
incorporated in the Tefilah of Shabbos (the whole year round) - on
Shachris and Ma'ariv, it is also incorporated in the Berachah of Shabbos
in the Musaf of Rosh Hashanah, in which case, there will still bo only
(d) However, the Gemara concludes, in another Beraisa, Beis Shamai
specifically preclude Rosh Chodesh from the Berachah of Shabbos, counting
it as an *eighth* Berachah. That being the case, the only reason for Beis
Shamai saying that the Musaf Tefilah of Rosh Hashanah comprises ten
Berachos and not eleven - is because they hold 'Zikaron Echad Olah le'Kahn
u'le'Kahn' (nor do we find that Beis Hillel disagree with this point -
which renders this proof conclusive).
(a) According to the Tana Kama - one mentions Rosh Chodesh in Shachris and
Ma'ariv, when Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, but not during the Berachah,
where Shabbos *only* is mentioned.
(b) According to Rebbi Eliezer - one mentions 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' in Hoda'ah
(c) With regard to the mention of Rosh Chodesh on Rosh Hashanah - the
Gemara concludes that 'Zikaron Echad Olah li'Sheneihem'.
(a) The Gemara thinks that perhaps one should not mention 'Shehecheyanu'
on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur - because they are not called Regalim.
(b) Rav Yehudah would recite 'Shehechiyanu' even on a new-season pumpkin -
but that may well have been because 'Shehechiyanu' on a new-season fruit
is Reshus (voluntary), which does not prove that one recites a
'Shehecheyanu' on Rosh Hashanah - in the form of an obligation.
(c) According to Rashi, one recites 'Shehechiyanu' upon seeing a new fruit
(though this is not the accepted Halachah).
(a) Rebbi Yehoshua interprets the Pasuk "Ten Chelek le'Shiv'ah, ve'Gam
li'Shemoneh" - with regard to the seven days of Pesach and the eight days
of Succos. "ve'Gam" comes to include Shavu'os, Rosh Hashanah and Yom
(b) Perhaps, contends the Gemara - the Pasuk is referring to the
obligation to recite the Berachah of 'Mekadesh Yisrael ve'ha'Zemanim' on
each of these days, and not to that of 'Shehechiyanu'.
(c) If Rebbi Yehoshua was referring to 'Shehechiyanu' - then 'Kol Shiv'ah
would mean that if one failed to recite it on the first day, that he had
seven days to compensate that omission, and could recite it on the first
of the seven that he remembered.
(d) The Gemara tries to prove from here that 'Shehechiyanu' on Yom-Tov may
be recited even in the market-place (i.e. without a cup of wine) - because
otherwise i.e. if 'Shehechiyanu' would require wine, who has wine after
the first day of Yom-Tov (it seems that in those days, it was normal to
run out of wine after the first day of Yom-Tov)?
(a) We will have a clear proof for Rav Nachman, from Rebbi Yehoshua, if he
is referring to the Berachah of 'Shehechiyanu' - from the fact that he
includes Yom Kipur in the obligation - even though it is not possible to
drink the wine after the Berachah.
(b) He cannot ...
1. ... drink the Kos after reciting 'Shehechiyanu' - because reciting
'Shehechiyanu' is an automatic acceptance of Yom Kipur, after which, it is
forbidden to eat or drink.
2. ... recite 'Shehechiyanu' and put he Kos down - because whenever a Kos
is required, one also needs to drink from it.
3. ... recite 'Shehechiyanu' and give the Kos to a child to drink -
because when that child grows up, he will get used to the idea of drinking
the Kos of Yom Kipur, and continue to so even after he has grown up.
(a) The Gemara concludes - that one is obligated to recite 'Shehechiyanu'
on Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur.
(b) We do indeed follow the opinion of Rav Nachman - that 'Shehechiyanu'
may be recited even in the market-place - without a cup of wine.