ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Chulin 24
CHULIN 23-24 - have been sponsored through the generous contribution of
Reb Uri Wolfson and family. May he continue to watch his children grow in
Torah and Yir'as Shamayim, following in the footsteps of their illustrious
parents and grandparents, shlit'a.
(a) The Beraisa learns from the Pasuk (in connection with the Goral between
the two goats [la'Hashem and la'Az'azel] on Yom Kipur) "Ve'asahu Chatas" -
that they are determined exclusively by lots.
(b) Otherwise, we would have learned from the birds of a Zav or of a
Yoledes - which are determined by designation (and not by lots), that the
goats, which can be determined by lots, can certainly be determined by
(c) This Beraisa, which holds that the 'Kal va'Chomer' overrides "Chukah"
(which the Torah inserts here) poses a Kashya on "Ve'shachat" and "Chukah" -
where (as we just explained), "Chukah" overrides the 'Kal va'Chomer.
(d) We answer - by citing the Pasuk "Eglah ha'Arufah", which specifically
precludes anything other than the Eglah, from the Din of Arifah (and a
specific Miy'ut does override a 'Kal va'Chomer, even though "Chukah" does
(a) We try to prove from a 'Kal va'Chomer' from Parah, that Shechitah should
be eligible by an Eglah - because if it is eligible by a Parah, even though
Arifah is not, then it should certainly be eligible by an Eglah, where it
(b) We refute this proof however, from "Ve'arfu ha'Eglah" - which the Torah
repeats, to teach us that Arifah is crucial to the Mitzvah.
(a) The Beraisa explains our Mishnah 'Kasher be'Kohanim, Pasul bi'Levi'im;
Kasher bi'Levi'im, Pasul be'Kohanim' to mean - that whereas Kohanim become
Pasul through Mumin, Levi'im become Pasul by age.
(b) A Levi is Pasul from performing the Avodah of a ben Levi - before the
age of thirty, and after thw age of fifty.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "*Zos* Asher la'Levi'im" - that a ben Levi becomes Pasul through age,
but not through a Mum.
(d) We would otherwise have thought that ...
2. ... "Zos *Asher la'Levi'im*" - that only Levi'im become Pasul through
age, but not Kohanim.
1. ... blemishes disqualify a Levi from serving - 'Kal va'Chomer' from a
Kohen, who does not become Pasul through age, whereas he (a Levi) does.
2. ... age disqualifies a Kohen from performing the Avodah - 'Kal va'Chomer'
from a Levi, who does not become Pasul through Mumin, whereas he (a Kohen)
(a) We learn from the Pasuk in Naso "La'avod Avodas Avodas Avodah va'Avodas
Masa" (written immediately after the age limit of the Levi'im mentioned
there) - that the top age limit by Levi'im only applied to the Mishkan in
the desert, but not to the Mishkan in Shiloh or the Beis-Hamikdash ...
(b) ... since the reason for this age period was due to the loads that the
Levi'im had to carry (see Agados Maharsha) - and no carrying took place once
they entered Eretz Yisrael (only singing and guarding the gates).
(c) And the Tana learns from the discrepancy between the Pasuk in
Beha'aloscha, which gives the age of a ben Levi as twenty-five, and the
Pasuk in Naso, which gives it as thirty - that the Levi'im would come to the
Mishkan to learn the Halachos five years before they were due to begin
(a) The Tana Kama learns from there - that a Talmid who, after five years of
study, sees no progress in his learning (e.g. he continues to forget all
that he learns), will not succeed in the future either.
(b) Whereas Rebbi Yossi learns from the Pasuk in Daniel "u'Legadlam Shenayim
Shalosh, u'Lelamdam Seifer ve'Lashon Kasdim" - that already after three
years, a Talmid should know that he will not succeed.
1. The Tana Kama declines to learn it from the Pasuk in Naso - because it
refers mainly to the study of Aramaic, which is easy.
2. Rebbi Yossi, on the other hand, declines to learn it from the Pasuk in
Daniel - because the Hilchos Avodah of a Levi (incorporating the Dinim of
building and dismantling of the Mishkan, and all the component parts, and of
singing and playing the instruments) are particularly difficult. See Agados
(a) Another Beraisa discusses the Pesulim of both the Kohanim and the
Levi'im. A Kohen begins to perform the Avodah at the age of - bar Mitzvah,
(b) ... he retires - when he becomes old (as we shall see later).
(c) A Levi became Pasul in Shiloh and the Beis-Hamikdash - when his voice no
longer blends with the voices of the other Levi'im.
(d) Rebbi Yossi learns this from a Pasuk in Divrei- Hayamim "Vayehi ke'Echad
la'Mechatzatzrim ve'li'Meshorarim u'Lehashmi'a Kol Echad". He interprets
"u'Lehashmi'a Kol Echad" to mean - that their voices must blend until they
sound like one voice.
(a) Rebbi Ila'a Amar Rebbi Chanina defines the 'old age' (at which a Kohen
retires) as - when his hands and feet begin to shake from old age.
(b) We learned in a Mishnah in Mikva'os that a Ba'al Keri who Tovels without
having urinated, becomes Tamei as soon as he does - because we suspect that
some of the Keri remained inside the limb, and it came out together with the
(c) Rebbi Yossi restricts the Tana Kama's ruling - to someone who is sick or
(d) Rebbi Ila'a Amar Rebbi Chanina defines 'Yeled' (young) in this context -
as someone who can take off and put on, his shoe, whilst standing on one
(e) Rebbi Chanina attributed the fact that he was still able to do this at
the age of eighty - to the hot water and oil with which his mother used to
anoint him when he was young.
(a) The Beraisa permits a person to be appointed as a Sheli'ach-Tzibur from
the moment his beard is fully grown. A Sheli'ach-Tzibur is - someone who
sees to all the communal needs, such as blowing the Shofar, administering
Malkos, placing in Cherem and to appoint the community president.
(b) Besides permitting a Kohen to Duchen (Nesi'as Kapayim) regularly -
'Nismalei Zikno' also authorises a person to be appointed the community
Chazan (see Tosfos DH 'Nismalei Zikno').
(c) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa permits a Kohen to perform the Avodah from
the time he turns bar-Mitzvah. According to Rebbi - this is only from the
age of twenty.
(d) Rav Chisda explains that Rebbi learns his opinion from the Pasuk in Ezra
"Va'ya'amidu es ha'Levi'im mi'ben Esrim Shanah va'Ma'alah Lam'natze'ach al
Meleches Beis Hashem". The Rabbanan counter that however - with
'Lem'natze'ach Sha'ani' (meaning that the twenty-year olds performed the
heavier types of tasks that required more strength).
(a) The problem with Rebbi's interpretation of the Pasuk in Ezra (that we
just quoted) is - that the Pasuk is written in connection with the Levi's,
who only become Pasul through voice change (and not through age)?
(b) And we answer with a statement of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi - who states
that in twenty-four places throughout T'nach, the Pasuk refers to the
Kohanim as Levi'im (incorporating this one, and ...
(c) ... including the Pasuk in Yechezkel "ve'ha'Kohanim ha'Levi'im b'nei
(a) Rebbi Elazar in a Beraisa, learns from the Pasuk "*Ish* mi'Zar'acha
le'Dorosam ... Lo Yikrav Lehakriv Lechem Elokav" - that a Katan is Pasul to
perform the Avodah.
(b) He says - that although a thirteen year old Kohen is eligible to serve
in the Beis-Hamikdash, the other Kohanim would not let them do so until they
reached the age of twenty.
(c) Bedi'eved however, the Beraisa clearly holds that a thirteen-year old's
Avodah is not Pasul (even mi'de'Rabbanan). Assuming the author to be Rebbi
(whom we cited earlier), the Rabbanan will then hold - that the Kohanim did
not in fact, stop him from serving (even Lechatchilah).
(d) If however, the author of the Beraisa is the Rabbanan, then Rebbi will
hold that until the age of twenty, a Kohen is forbidden to serve
mi'de'Rabbanan, and that if he does, his Avodah is Pasul.
(a) The Beraisa interprets our Mishnah ...
1. ... "Tahor bi'Chelei Cheres, Tamei be'Chol ha'Keilim" to mean - that
whereas if Tum'ah touches the back of an earthenware vessel, the vessel
remains Tahor, if it touches the back of any other vessel, it becomes Tamei.
(b) The Tana of another Beraisa learns from the Pasuk in Shemini "ve'Chol
K'li Cheres Asher Yipol Meihem (with reference to a Sheretz) el Tocho" -
that something Tamei that is dangled in the air space of an earthenware
vessel renders the vessel Tamei.
2. ... "Tahor be'Chol ha'Keilim, Tamei bi'Chelei Cheres - that whereas if
something Tamei is dangled inside any other vessel, the vessel remains
Tahor, if it is dangled inside an earthenware vessel, it becomes Tamei.
(c) And Rebbi Yonasan ben Avtulmus learns from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Tocho"
from "Kol Asher be'Tocho Yitma" (Litamei from Letamei) - that it renders the
vessel Tamei even if it does not actually touch the vessel.
(d) 'Litamei' means - to become Tamei, whereas 'Letamei' means to make
(a) When we say that we learn 'Letamei' itself from the fact that the Pasuk
speaks even about a case where the K'li is full of mustard-seeds - we mean
that the Pasuk is therefore speaking about food in the earthenware oven
becoming Tamei via the Sheretz, even though it is not actually touching it,
as we shall now see.
(b) Besides the fact that each seed is less than a k'Beitzah (which cannot
be Metamei others with regard to Tum'as Ochlin), the mustard seeds could not
possibly all become Tamei through touching - a. because food is not Metamei
food, and b. because that would entail each seed receiving Tum'ah from one
that is touching it (and in the realm of Chulin, there is no level of Tum'ah
lower than a Sheini le'Tum'ah).
(c) This forces us to conclude - that the mustard-seeds all become Tamei
through the Tum'ah filling the air space (but not through touching).