POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Chulin 56
CHULIN 56 - The material produced for this Daf has been dedicated in
loving memory of Moshe Simcha ben David Z"L Rubner (Yahrzeit: 23 Adar II)
by his parents, David and Zahava Rubner of Petach Tikva, Israel.
1) "TEREIFOS" IN BIRDS
(a) (Mishnah): Any of the following makes a bird Tereifah:
1. The Veshet was punctured; the majority of the Kaneh
was cut; a weasel bit it on (a certain portion of)
the head; the stomach or small intestines were
(b) It fell into a fire and the innards were scorched;
1. If the innards turned green, it is Tereifah; if they
are red, it is Kosher.
(c) If it was trampled or hit against a wall, and was still
quivering - if it was slaughtered after 24 hours (and the
internal organs were checked), it is Kosher.
(d) (Gemara - Rav, Shmuel and Levi): To check (when a weasel
bit it on the head), one puts his hand in the mouth and
1. If brain matter exudes from the head, it is
Tereifah; if not, it is Kosher.
(e) Question: According to the opinion that it is Tereifah
even if only the outer membrane was punctured, how can we
rely on this test (perhaps nothing exudes because the
inner membrane is intact)!
2. This is like the opinion that it is Tereifah only if
the inner and outer membranes of the brain was
(f) Answer: The inner membrane is soft, it would break under
(g) (Ze'iri): One cannot check for a weasel's bite, because
its teeth are fine.
(h) Question: Why is this a problem? If there is a puncture,
brain matter will exude!
(i) Answer (R. Oshiya): One cannot check because its teeth
are fine and crooked.
(j) Retraction (R. Oshiya): We can check, like Reish Lakish
and R. Yochanan taught.
1. (Reish Lakish): We may check by hand (as above.)
(k) Reish Lakish and R. Yochanan argue like the following
2. (R. Yochanan): We may also check using an (iron)
nail (to see if it gets caught in a crevice in the
1. R. Yehudah would check by hand; R. Nechemyah would
check with a needle.
(l) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): If a bird was bitten by a weasel,
we may check it by hand, not with a nail;
2. R. Yehudah: By using a needle, you sometimes
inadvertently create a hole (and rule that it is
Tereifah), causing a loss to the owners!
3. R. Nechemyah: Checking by hand is not reliable - you
sometimes permit a Nevelah!
i. Really, it is only a Tereifah, for it was
1. If the skull was broken, even if the membrane is
intact, it is Tereifah.
(m) Question: If so, we cannot rely on the above test (which
is only for the membrane)!
(n) Answer: A broken skull is Tereifah only in birds that
live in water, since they have no membrane.
1. Really, they have a membrane, just it is very soft.
(o) Question (Rav Nachman): Do Rav and Shmuel really rely on
testing by hand? Levi's Beraisa refutes them!
1. (Beraisa - Levi): If a defect makes an animal
Tereifah, it makes a bird Tereifah;
(p) Answer: A broken skull is only a Tereifah by birds that
live in water, since their membrane is soft.
2. A broken skull, even though the membrane is intact,
is Tereifah only regarding birds.
(q) R. Chana's chicken had a broken skull, but the membrane
was intact; Rav Masna was Machshir.
1. R. Chana: But Levi taught that this is Tereifah!
(r) Rav Shizbi would check by sunlight; Rav Yemar would check
with water (he would see if water can leave through the
wound; alternatively, he would see if water put on the
wound externally would whiten (a sign that it mixes with
brain matter); Rav Acha bar Yakov would check with straw
(the way one checks with a nail.)
2. Rav Masna: He only refers to birds that live in
2) IF THE INTESTINES WERE BURNED
1. (Rav Shizbi): Our geese are considered birds that
live in water.
(a) (Mishnah): If it fell in a fire...
3) DEFECTS THAT DO NOT MAKE BIRDS "TEREIFAH"
(b) (R. Yochanan): Just like a puncture of any size (in the
innards) is Tereifah, also greenness of any size.
(c) Question (Rav Yosef, son of R. Yehoshua ben Levi): If the
part of the liver by the innards turned green, what is
(d) Answer (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): It is Tereifah.
(e) Question: This should be no worse than if it was missing,
but that is Kosher!
(f) Answer (Rava): If this part turned green, it indicates
that the small intestines themselves were singed, so it
(g) R. Yehoshua ben Levi sent a chicken to R. Elazar ha'Kapar
1. R. Elazar: It is green, it is Kosher.
(h) R. Avahu checked a chicken for R. Yitzchak bar Yosef; he
ruled that it is Tereifah because of redness (in the
2. Question (Mishnah): If they are green, it is
3. Answer: That only refers to the stomach, heart and
liver, which are normally red.
4. Support (Beraisa): Greenness is a Tereifah only in
the stomach, heart and liver, which are normally
(i) Question (Mishnah): If they are red, it is Kosher!
(j) Answer: If what is normally red turns green, or
vice-versa, it is Tereifah;
1. Redness is Kosher only in the stomach, heart and
(k) (Rav Shmuel bar Chiya): If what was red turned green, and
reverted to red when it was cooked, it is Kosher.
1. The greenness was due to smoke, it went away during
(l) (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): If red organs turned green
during cooking, it is Tereifah.
1. This reveals that they were burned while the animal
(m) (Rav Ashi): If so, a bird that fell in a fire should not
be eaten until cooked!
(n) Rejection: If we do not see signs that the innards were
singed, we are not concerned for this.
(o) (Mishnah): If it was trampled or hit against a wall...
(p) (R. Elazar ben Antigonus): In either case, it must be
(a) (Mishnah): The following defects do not make a bird
1. The Kaneh was punctured or cracked; a weasel bit it
on the head (in a place that will not kill it); the
crop was punctured;
(b) (Gemara - Beraisa): R. Simai and R. Tzadok ruled about a
removed womb, like Rebbi rules about the crop.
i. Rebbi says, even if the crop was removed.
2. The intestines came out (and were returned), they
were not punctured;
3. The wings or legs were broken; the large feathers
i. R. Yehudah says, if the small feathers fell
off, it is Tereifah.
(c) Question: Did they rule that a removed womb is Tereifah,
and about a crop like Rebbi;
1. Or, did they rule that a removed womb is Kosher,
like Rebbi rules by the crop - but they hold that a
removed crop is Tereifah?
(d) (Rabah): The top of the crop is like the Veshet (if
punctured, it is Tereifah.)
2. This question is unresolved.
1. (Rav Bibi bar Abaye): This applies from where it
starts to get thin.
(e) (Mishnah): The intestines were removed...
(f) (R. Shmuel bar R. Yitzchak): This is only if they were
returned the same way - if they were reversed, it is
1. "Hu Oscha va'Ykonenecha" - Hash-m made bases (Kenim)
in man, if they are reversed, man cannot live.
(g) (Beraisa - R. Meir): "Hu Oscha va'Ykonenecha" - Hash-m
made Yisrael like a great city that has everything,
Kohanim, prophets, ministers, and kings - "Mimenu Finah
Mimenu Yased" (the cornerstone and bolt (essential
leaders) are from Yehudah.)
(h) A man fell from the roof; (the skin over) his stomach
split, and his intestines came out. A Nochri looking on
made an illusion, like if he slaughtered the man's son;
1. The man's anguish caused his intestines to recoil
into his body without reversing; the Nochri sewed
him up (and he lived.)