1) HALACHAH: MASHED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
The question of "Terimah" is a common, practical issue. What blessing does one recite on mashed potatoes, mashed avocado, apple sauce, etc.? From our Gemara, the Halachah is clear that mashed potatoes and mashed avocado retain their original blessings because their form has not been essentially changed. On the other hand, the blessing for apple sauce or any fruit placed into a blender or reconstituted such that the original fruit is no longer discernible will be "sheha'Kol."
There are several exceptions to this rule:
(a) If there are actual pieces of the original fruit remaining in the mashed product, one should recite "Borei Pri ha'Etz" on the pieces of fruit and exempt the rest with that blessing. (Rav Shlomo Zalman Auerbach, zt'l, points out that since there are opinions that maintain that the mashed product is "Borei Pri ha'Etz" even if it is completely pulverized (unlike the opinion of Rashi), one may rely on that opinion when there are actual pieces of fruit mixed in.)
38b2) HAMOTZI LECHEM MIN HA'ARETZ
QUESTION: The Gemara states that saying "Motzi" in the blessing over bread is valid according to all opinions. "*Ha*'Motzi" is subject to dispute, but the Gemara concludes that it is also a valid blessing. The Halachah is that we recite "ha'Motzi."3) HALACHAH: THE BERACHAH FOR COOKED VEGETABLES
The Gemara says that any fruit or vegetable that is cooked retains the blessing that is recited on the original fruit or vegetable, unless it becomes worse after it is cooked (such as garlic and leek). Therefore, if someone cooks apples, pears, or plums, he recites "Borei Pri ha'Etz" even after they are cooked because they did not become worse.
Garlic, on the other hand, becomes worse when it is cooked (it loses some of its taste), and therefore its blessing is "sheha'Kol." One who eats raw garlic recites "Borei Pri ha'Adamah." The Mishnah Berurah (205:5) points out (in the name of the Achronim) that "ha'Adamah" is only recited on raw *soft* garlic, which may be eaten raw. If someone eats raw *hard* garlic, though (i.e., normal garlic), he recites "sheha'Kol," because hard garlic is something that is not normally eaten alone. The same Halachah applies to onions.
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