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Previous dafBerachos 35
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg
and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is
devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara,
Rashi or Tosfos.)
 Gemara 35b [line 36]
"Derech Gagos, *Derech Chatzeiros*, Derech Karfifos, Kedei l'Potran..."
The words "Derech Chatzeiros" do not appear in the text of the Gemara in
Gitin 81a, nor do they appear in the text of the Dikdukei Sofrim or Beis
Nasan. This makes the Gemara easier to understand, for otherwise how could
Rebbi Yochanan exempt Derech Chatzeiros from Ma'aser if he himself holds
(on the next line) that a Chatzer *is* Kove'ah for Ma'aser.
1) [line 6] YERAKOS - greens, leafy vegetables, e.g. cabbage, spinach and
lettuce (TALMIDEI RABEINU YONAH)
2) [line 8] DESHA'IM - grasses, herbage
3) [line 13] ACHALEI V'HADAR ACHLEI - redeem it and then eat it
4) [line 14] SHIRAH
A wine libation was brought with many of the Korbanos, as it states in
Bamidbar 15:5-10. One of the jobs of the Levi'im in the Beis ha'Mikdash was
to sing Tehilim at the time that the wine was poured into special pipes at
the top of the Mizbe'ach ha'Olah. At the time that the wine was poured, a
signal was given for the Levi'im to begin singing the Tehilim.
5) [line 19] "HECHADALTI" - "should I stop giving"
6) [line 22] NETA REVAI
(a) In the first three years after a tree is planted, its fruits are called
Orlah and are Asurim b'Hana'ah, as it states in Vayikra 19:23. The fruits
of the fourth year are called Neta Revai and are Kodesh (holy) (ibid.
19:24). They must be brought to and eaten in Yerushalayim. Alternatively,
the fruits may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem
them is brought to Yerushalayim. The food which is bought with that money
is Kodesh like Neta Revai and must be eaten b'Taharah.
7) [line 37] OLELOS
(b) The Gemara records an argument as to whether the laws of Neta Revai
apply to all fruits or only to grapes (Kerem Revai). The Halachah in Eretz
Yisrael follows the opinion that the laws of Neta Revai apply to zall
fruits (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 294:6).
(c) With regard to fruits that grew outside of Eretz Yisrael, there are
three opinions: a) RABEINU YONAH, quoting RI HA'ZAKEN states that they have
the same Halachah as fruits in Eretz Yisrael, and require Pidyon; b) The
RAMBAM (Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:15) rules that they do not require
Pidyon; c) GE'ONIM, TOSFOS DH u'Lema'an and ROSH explain that the rule,
"the Halachah in Chutz la'Aretz follows the opinion of those who hold the
lenient opinion in Eretz Yisrael" applies to Neta Revai. The lenient
opinion is Kerem Revai, where the laws of Kedushah and Pidyon apply only to
grapes. Accordingly, only fourth-year *grapes* need Pidyon.
(d) The SHACH (Yoreh De'ah 294:17) concludes that *all* fourth-year fruits
of Chutz la'Aretz should be redeemed without a Berachah in Chutz la'Aretz.
The Vilna Ga'on (ibid. 294:28) rules like the third opinion, c), in which
case only grapes need Pidyon, with a Berachah.
Olelos are incompletely-formed grape clusters, in which no grapes hang from
the tip of the central stem, and the grapes on the side-stems that part
from the central stem do not lie on one another. These clusters must be
left behind on the vine for the poor, as stated in Vayikra (19:10),
"ve'Charmecha Lo *Se'olel*... le'Ani vela'Ger Ta'azov Osam"
8) [line 38] CHALAH
Whenever a person kneads a dough made from one of the five species of grain
(wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be
given to the Kohen, as specified in Bamidbar 15:17-21. This portion is
called Chalah. The requirement to separate Challah with a Berachah only
applies to a dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of grain (about 9
1/8 cups or 2.16 liters). An amount about half that much requires Challah
to be separated without a Berachah. A baker must separate 1/48 of his
dough as Chalah, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24.
9) [line 38] LO RE'I ZEH K'RE'I ZEH
(a) The method of learning that is being used by our Gemara is called a
comparison, or "Meh Matzinu" ("what we have found [in one subject, applies
to another subject, also]"). Among the rules of this method is the rule of
a "Pirchah" (a question), where even a slight difference between the
subjects causes the comparison to collapse, and no connection may be made.
10) [line 42] TZAD MIZBE'ACH - The point in common between wine, grain and
oil is that they are brought up on the Mizbe'ach: flour and oil for
Menachos; wine for Nesachim. This is not the case with all foods.
(b) At this point the Gemara will bring a "Yochi'ach" or "Tochi'ach" (fem.)
(a proof), where another subject, which fulfills the requirements of the
Pirchah, is used to rebuild the comparison. A second Pirchah follows, where
the Yochi'ach subject is brought into question. Then the original subject
becomes the Yochi'ach.
(c) The conclusion is v'Chazar ha'Din (the Din goes back and forth), Lo
Re'i Zeh k'Re'i Zeh (this subject is not exactly like that subject and vice
versa), but the Tzad ha'Shaveh (common denominator) may be used to connect
the Halachos of the two subjects, and we may learn a new Halachah from them
(in our case, that all foods require a Berachah). The common denominator
may also be brought into question, which inhibits learning the new Halachah
from the two subjects.
11) [line 48] BIKURIM
The Mitzvah of Bikurim consists of bringing the first fruits to emerge in
one's field every year to the Kohanim in the Beis ha'Mikdash. A Kohen takes
the basket of fruit and places it at the southeastern corner of the altar's
base (Mishna Bikurim 2:3). The owner recites a specified declaration
(verses 26:3,5-10), and the fruits are then given to the Kohen (Bikurim
3:8; 2:11). The Mitzvah of Bikurim applies only to the seven species with
which the land of Eretz Yisrael was blessed (Devarim 8:8) -- wheat, barley,
grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates (Bikurim 3:6). (Although many
other types of produce now grow in Eretz Yisrael, these are the *only*
species of produce truly indigenous to Israel. Other, "immigrant," species
can be destroyed by drought or harsh weather, but these 7 species will
always be part of the land -- heard once from a leading botanist -MK.)
12) [line 53] MA'AL
(a) It is forbidden to derive personal benefit from anything that is
Hekdesh. This is learned from the Lav of "Lo Suchal le'Echol bi'Sharecha
... u'Ndarecha Asher Tidor" ("You may not eat in your settlements, ... and
your pledges that you will pledge") (Devarim 12:17).
(b) All of the food created in the world that will be consumed by Jews is
considered Kadosh until the proper Berachah is recited. Therefore a Jew who
does not recite the proper Berachah when he benefits from this world is
compared to Mo'el b'Hekdesh.
13) [line 3] KENESES YISRAEL - The Assembly (people) of Yisrael. See
Maharsha 35a DH L"K (Lo Kashya)
14) [line 9] YERAV'AM BEN NEVAT
Yerav'am Ben Nevat was the first king of the ten tribes of Yisrael after
their secession from the kingdom of the Davidic dynasty (subsequently known
as Yehudah), as recorded in Melachim 1:11:26-1:12:20. In order to prevent
the people of the ten tribes from returning to the leadership of the
Davidic kings, he outlawed the Mitzvah of Aliyah l'Regel (traveling to the
Beis ha'Mikdash for Pesach, Shavu'os and Sukos). Instead, he set up two
golden calves (ibid. 1:12:28), one in Beis El and one in Dan, and
proclaimed that they should be served.
15) [line 19] DASH - threshes
16) [line 19] ZOREH - winnows
17) [line 25] B'MATUSA MINAICHU - I beg of you, I ask a favor of you
18) [line 25] LO SISCHAZA'U KAMAI - do not appear before me
19) [line 25] D'LO TITARDU BI'MZONAICHU - so that you should not be
troubled/busy with attaining your sustenance
20) [line 32] TERAKSEMON - gateway
21) [line 32] MA'ASER
(a) After a crop is harvested, and brought to the owner's house or yard, he
must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Although
the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the
requirement at approximately one fiftieth.
22) [line 33] KARPIFOS - enclosed areas used for storage
(b) After Terumah is removed from the produce, the first tithe to be given
every year is called Ma'aser Rishon; one tenth of the produce must be given
to a Levi.
(c) A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been
separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the
7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.
(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth
years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be
brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, Ma'aser
Sheni produce may be redeemed, in which case the money used to redeem it is
brought to Yerushalayim. The food which is bought with that money in
Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah.
23) [line 36] ISHTENI L'ILUYA - it has changed to a superior form (from
grapes to wine)
24a) [line 40] CHAMRA ZAYIN - wine nourishes
b) [line 40] MISHCHA LO ZAYIN - oil does not nourish
25) [line 43] 5 MININ
Five species of grain, wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt, can be made into
bread that requires the Berachah of ha'Motzi beforehand and Birkas ha'Mazon
afterwards. According to the Rabanan (Berachos 37a), only these grains are
acceptable for making Matzos for Pesach. Likewise, they rule that only
these grains may become Chametz that is forbidden on Pesach.
26) [line 44] CHAMRA SA'ID - wine satiates
27) [line 45] D'NEGAREREI L'LIBEI - to stimulate his appetite
28) [line 46] TUVA GARIR - a great amount [of wine] stimulates the appetite
29) [line 48] SHALOSH BERACHOS - Birkas ha'Mazon (of which the first three
blessing are obligatory from the Torah)
30) [line 50] BATLAH DA'ATO ETZEL KOL ADAM
When a person puts himself in a situation that contradicts normal behavior,
we treat this situation as Halachically invalid. For example, if a person
eats something which is not food, we do not require him to make a Berachah
over it, since it is not normally eaten. In our Gemara, if someone makes
wine the chief element of his meal, Rava states that we can only wait until
Eliyahu ha'Navi arrives to learn if his action elevates the meal of wine to
the level where he may say Birkas ha'Mazon afterwards. In the meantime,
since this is not normal behavior, we need not relate to his action, and
even he should not say Birkas ha'Mazon.
31) [line 52] HA'SACH SHEMEN SHEL TERUMAH
(a) After a crop is harvested, and brought to the owner's house or yard, he
must separate Terumah from the crop, which he gives to a Kohen. Kohanim and
members of their households are allowed to eat Terumah, as long as they are
32) [line 54] TEFEILAH - a food of secondary importance
(b) If a non-Kohen eats or benefits from Terumah in a normal fashion, he
must pay the amount that he benefited to the Kohen who owns the Terumah,
plus an additional fifth of the value, which is given to any Kohen
(Terumos, 6:2). The payment for the original amount must be made in the
form of a food which can itself become Terumah (i.e., it is not already
If he benefited in an abnormal fashion, such as drinking olive oil, he only
pays the value of the object destroyed (i.e., the normal Halachah of
damages applies to him.).
33) [last line] ENIGARON - a sauce in which oil is mixed with beet juice
34) [last line] ANSIGRON - the sauce of all kinds of mixed vegetables