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Previous dafBerachos 19
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach, Rav B. Rensburg
and the parenthetical marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is
devoted to any *OTHER* changes that we feel ought to be made in Gemara,
Rashi or Tosfos.)
 Gemara 19a [line 2]:
The words "Lama Lei l'Meimar Lehu, l'Achzukei Lei Tivusa"
should be "Lama Lei l'Meimar, *Ela* l'Achzukei Lei Tivusa"
This is the Girsa in Dikdukei Sofrim #8. This was also the Girsa of Tosfos
Sotah 34b DH Avosai - see the marginal notes of ha'Rav Berlin (ibid.); see
*1*) [line 1] KI AMAR LEHU, MAI HEVI - see Insights
2) [line 2] L'ACHZUKEI LEI TIVUSA L'MOSHE - so that they should have
appreciation for Moshe
3) [line 3] KOL HA'MESAPER ACHAREI HA'MES - anyone who slanders a dead
4) [line 6] CHAD ISHTA'I MILSA - one person said a bad thing
5a) [line 7] NAFAL KANYA MI'TELALA - a heavy reed or stick fell from the
b) [line 8] U'BAZ'A L'ARNEKA D'MOCHEI - and split his skull
6) [line 9] TAVA B'YKAREI - avenges his honor
7) [line 18] L'CHI SISHKACH - when you will find out, i.e. find it yourself
8) [line 18] NAFAK, DAK, V'ASHKACH TELAS - he carried it out, examined the
Mishnayos, and found three cases
9) [line 19] HA'MEGIS DA'ATO KELAPEI MA'ALAH - one who is haughty towards
10) [line 20] MASHKIN
A Sotah is a woman who is suspected of committing adultery, because she was
warned by her husband not to be alone with a certain man, and then she
violated the warning.
The husband must bring his wife to the Beis ha'Mikdash, along with a
sacrifice consisting of 1/10 of an Eifah (approx. 2 quarts) of barley meal.
An earthenware jug is then filled with half a Lug of water from the Kiyor,
and dirt from the floor of the Mishkan is placed on top of the water.
The portion of the Torah describing the curses with which a Sotah is cursed
(which contains numerous appearances of Hashem's name) was written on
parchment and then immersed in the water, causing the ink to dissolve and
the holy name to be erased. The Sotah would drink from the water. If she
had been unfaithful to her husband, the water would enter her body and
cause her belly to swell out and her thigh to rupture. If she was faithful
to her husband, she would remain unharmed and would be blessed with
children (Bamidbar 5:11-31)
The Mishnah from Eduyos quoted here records a disagreement as to whether
certain women are exempt from being made to drink the Mei Sotah.
11) [line 22] DUGMA HISHKUHA - (a) they made someone similar to them (since
they were also converts) drink the Mei Sotah (RASHI);
(b) they made her drink something that resembled Mei Sotah (TOSFOS)
12) [line 26] PIKPEK - contested the validity of; made light of
13) [line 29] TZARICH ATAH L'HISNADOS - you ought to be put in Cherem
(excommunicated) for troubling Heaven
14) [line 30] SHE'ATAH MISCHATEI - that you (a) do wrong (RASHI) (b) long
for (BARTENURA Ta'anis 3:8) (c) are pampered (ARUCH) (d) plead (RABEINU
15) [line 33] GEDAYIM MEKULASIN - kid-goats roasted in their entirety (like
the Korban Pesach)
16) [line 35] CHATCHO CHULYOS, V'NASAN CHOL BEIN CHULYA L'CHULYA
This was originally a dome-shaped clay oven that was sliced into rings.
Sand was placed between each ring and it was plastered together. The
Halachah for clay and earthenware utensils is that if they become Tamei,
they remain so until they are broken beyond use. Rebbi Eliezer ruled that
the process of slicing it rendered it Tahor such that it would never become
Tamei. It is considered a broken utensil forever. Chachamim held that it
could still become Tamei, since the plastering process rejoined the parts
to make a whole oven again.
17) [line 38] K'ACHNAI ZEH - like this snake (that coils up like a ring)
18) [line 39] BERCHUHU - they put him in Cherem
*19*) [line 40] MEDAMEH MILSA L'MILSA - he compares one case to another
(and supposes that wherever there was a great Machlokes between an
individual and the Chachamim or an individual spoke up against a Sage of
the Mishnah greater than he, the individual was worthy of being put into
Cherem) - (The Rambam lists the 24 causes for excommunication in Hilchos
Talmud Torah 6:14)
20) [line 47] SHE'TIGDOR PIRTZOSEINU - you should fence in our breaches
21) [line 49] AL YIFTACH ADAM PIV LA'SATAN - literally, "one should not
open his mouth to the Angel of Death," that one should not speak about bad
things that could happen to him (as he did here by suggesting that he
deserved much more retribution)
22) [line 5] KILAYIM
Any mixture prohibited by the Torah (Vayikra 19:19; Devarim 22:9-11). The
Gemara is referring to clothing which contains a mixture of wool and linen.
See Insights to Nidah 61:3.
*23*) [line 8] KAVRU ES HA'MES - They (Kohanim) went along to escort those
who were burying the dead
24) [line 12] BEIS HA'PERAS
There are three types of Beis ha'Pras: (a) a field in which a grave was
plowed over, scattering the bones in all directions; (b) a field in which
there is a grave which we cannot find; (c) a field on the edge of a town
where a corpse was brought for burial. In the latter instance, we suspect
that: (1) part of the corpse may have dislodged and remains in the field,
or (2) the corpse was inadvertently left there and not taken to a cemetery
as all. Our Gemara is discussing the first type (a).
The Bartenura offers three explanations for why the word "Pras" was used:
(a) the Tum'ah *spreads* (Pores) out in all directions
25) [line 13] MENAPE'ACH ADAM - a person blows
(b) the bones are *broken* (Perusim)
(c) peoples *feet* (Parsos) stay away from there
26) [line 15] SHE'NIDASH - that was trampled
27) [line 22] OHEL
A space that is a Tefach by a Tefach square and a Tefach high is considered
to be an "Ohel." If a k'Zayis from a corpse is anywhere in an Ohel, Tumah
spreads out in all directions to fill the entire Ohel but remains inside
A space that is less than a cubic Tefach does not have the law of an Ohel.
Tum'as Mes in such an area is called "Tum'ah Retzutzah" (smashed or
squashed Tum'ah) or "Tum'ah Temunah" (hidden Tum'ah). The Tum'ah of the Mes
does not spread throughout the enclosure; rather, it "breaks through"
(Boka'as) its enclosure and goes straight up and straight down, as if it
were in the open air.
28) [line 30] ACHICHU ALEI - they laughed at him
29) [line 34] V'HISALAMTA MEHEM
The Torah requires that a person return lost objects that he finds, as
stated in Devarim 22:1-3. The wording in the Torah suggests that there are
cases when this Mitzvah does not apply, and the Gemara here and in Bava
Metzia 30a discuss them.