ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Avodah Zarah 70
AVODAH ZARAH 69-71 - Three Dafim have been sponsored through the generous
grant of an anonymous donor in Flatbush, NY.
(a) In a case where a Nochri locked the door of a room that contained
wine-barrels belonging to a Yisrael - they discovered a Nochri wandering
among the wine-barrels.
(b) Based on the fact that there was a crack in the door - Rava permitted
the barrels that could be seen through the crack (which the Nochri would
have been afraid to touch for fear that the Yisrael would see him through
the crack), but forbade the barrels at the side.
(c) In a case where a barrel of wine belonging to the Yisrael on the upper
floor was stored in the room of a Nochri who lived on the lower floor - they
all left the house when they heard the sound of a people quarreling.
(d) Rava permitted the wine, after the Nochri re-entered his apartment and
locked the door - because, he argued, the Nochri would be afraid to touch
the wine, for fear that the Yisrael entered his apartment, too, and would
see him touching.
(a) In a case where they found a Nochri wandering around the barrels of wine
belonging to a Yisrael which were stored ...
1. ... in a Nochri's inn - Rava permitted the wine only if he was a
nonentity, who was afraid of the judges of the town, but if he was an
important person, then it would be forbidden (as we explained at the end of
(b) This is worse than a similar case (which we will learn later) where the
Yisrael left the Nochri in his wine store - and which is permitted because
there the owner was aware of his presence, and the Nochri would therefore be
afraid to be caught touching the wine.
2. ... in the owner's house - Rava permitted the wine only if the Nochri
*did not have any excuse* for being in the inn (because he would then be
afraid to touch it), but not if he *did*, in which case he would rely on his
excuse to touch the wine.
(c) The Beraisa rules in a case where the inn was shut (leaving the Nochri
inside) or where the owner of a barrel of wine asked the Nochri to look
after his wine from outside - that the wine is forbidden (in the latter
case, because he thinks that the owner is going away).
(d) We reconcile Rava's latest ruling with the Beraisa - by establishing the
latter when the Nochri had an excuse to be inside the inn.
(a) The Yisrael who was sitting and drinking wine together with a Nochri
left the room - because he heard a Minyan begin Davenning 'Minchah' next
(b) Rava permitted the wine - because the Nochri would be afraid to touch
it, in case the Yisrael would suddenly remember his wine and return.
(c) In all the current cases, when Rava ...
1. ... permits the wine, he means - that one may even drink it (seeing as
the Nochri did not touch it).
2. ... forbids it, he means - that it is even Asur be'Hana'ah.
(a) When a Yisrael was drinking wine together with a Nochri in a boat one
Friday afternoon, he got up and left - when he heard the Shofar being blown
(to herald the approach of Shabbos).
(b) Rava permitted the wine - because, he explained, the Nochri would be
afraid to touch the wine, in case the Yirael returned for his wine.
(c) Isur Giyora testified - that, when he was a Nochri, he and his friends
believed that the Jews don't keep Shabbos (from the fact that there were
never any lost articles in the streets on Shabbos (an indication that the
Jews had picked them all up and carried them home).
(d) And this explains why - Rava did not forbid the wine because the Nochri
knew that the Yisrael could not return to pick up his wine, since on
Shabbos, it was forbidden to carry it.
(e) The Nochrim's mistake lay in the ruling of Rebbi Yitzchak (of which they
were unaware) - permitting someone who finds a purse containing money on
Shabbos, to carry it home, provided he carries it less than four Amos at a
time (which the Torah does not consider carrying).
(a) That Nochri hid behind the barrels in the wine-press - when he heard a
lion roaring in the vicinity.
(b) Rava nevertheless permitted the barrels in the wine-press - because the
Nochri would figure that if he hid behind one barrel, some Jews may have
hidden behind barrels that were behind his, and would spot him if he tried
touching the wine.
(c) When thieves arrived in Pumbedisa and opened many barrels of wine, Rava
permited the wine - on the basis of the fact that most thieves in Pumbedisa
(d) Shmuel (who lived long before Rava) had issued the same ruling when this
happened in Neherda'a. His reason however though- was not the same as
Rava's, since Pumbedisa was unique in that few Nochrim lived there.
(a) We try to equate Shmuel's ruling with Rebbi Eliezer in the Mishnah in
Taharos, where a man is not sure whether he touched Tum'ah in a certain
field in a Bik'ah (a series of fields) - In fact, he is uncertain whether he
entered the field which contained the Tum'ah or not.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer rules - that he is Tahor, but only because it is a case of
Safek Bi'ah (whether he even entered the field). In a case of Vaday Bi'ah,
but Safek Tum'ah, he would have declared him Tamei.
(c) His ruling is confined to winter - when, due to the fact that the fields
have already been seeded, and people avoid walking in them, a Bik'ah has the
Din of a Reshus ha'Yachid, whose Safek is Asur. In the summer - he would
have permitted even Vaday Bi'ah, ve'Safek Tum'ah.
(d) We refute the suggestion that Shmuel's ruling follows the opinion of
Rebbi Eliezer - because in his case, there is the additional Safek that
maybe the Nochri opened the barrels for their monetary gain (and not with
the intention of being Menasech). Consequently, this is a case of 'S'fek
S'feika', whih even the Rabbanan will agree is permitted.
(a) In the case where a young Nochri girl was found among the barrels with
foam in her hand. Rava permitted the wine - because he assumed that she got
it from the back of the barrel (and not from the inside [bearing in mind
that such a young girl probably didn't know much about Nisuch anyway]).
(b) Nor would it make any difference - even if there was not a trace of foam
on the barrel.
(c) He would not have ruled the same way had she been a few years older, and
was more conversant with the concept of Nisuch.
(a) When a royal army entered Neherda'a and opened many barrels of wine, Rav
Dimi cited Rebbi Elazar as having ruled in a similar case in Eretz Yisrael -
that the wine was permitted.
(b) He was not sure however, whether Rebbi Elazar's ruling was based on the
opinion of Rebbi Eliezer (see Hagahos ha'Bach) who permits Safek Bi'ah (as
we learned on the previous Amud) or - because the majority of soldiers who
came with the army (in Rebbi Elazar's town) happened to be Jewish.
(c) The problem with Rav Dimi's referring to the case as 'Safek Bi'ah' is -
that seeing as they opened the barrels, it is surely a question of Safek
Maga, and not Safek Bi'ah.
(d) We answer - that the excessive number of barrels (far more than they
needed for their personal use) proves that they opened them to sell their
contents (and not to drink and to be Menasech), causing Rebbi Elazar to
treat the case with the same leniency as Safek Bi'ah according to Rebbi
(a) Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Elazar cited a ruling with regard to a woman
wine-seller who handed the key to a Nochris - permitting the wine (because
she only gave her the key to look after (and not to help herself to the
wine). Consequently, she will be afraid to take the liberty of using the key
to gain entry, for fear of being caught in the act.
(b) Abaye supported this ruling with a Beraisa. The Tana rules there that
if someone hands the keys of his Taharos to an Am-ha'Aretz - they remain
(c) Abaye learned the Din of Yayin Nesech from this Beraisa - from a 'Kal
(a) According to Rav, if a Chaver (who is particular about Tum'ah) puts up a
low wall between himself and an Am-ha'Aretz, his Taharos are Tamei - whereas
in the event that his neighbor was a Nochri - his wine would not be Yayin
(b) Rebbi Yochanan maintains - that the Chaver's Taharos remain Tahor, too.
(c) We learn from Rav - that Yayin Nesech is more lenient than Taharos,
bearing out Abaye's 'Kal va'Chomer'.
(a) The Beraisa rules in a case where a Chaver lives in the inside Chatzer
and an Am-ha'Aretz in the outside one - that the Chaver may spread out his
fruit and place his vessels in his Chatzer (and not worry about them
(b) Despite the fact that the Tana is speaking when the Nochri is able to
reach inside the Chaver's Chatzer, Rav reconciles his opinion with the
Beraisa - because whereas there the Nochri is afraid of being caught in the
act, he is not afraid of that in his case, where they divided a small
Chatzer, which basically remains like one Chatzer.
(c) In another Beraisa, Raban Shimon ben Gamliel permits the Chaver whose
roof is higher than his Am-ha'Aretz neighbor's, to spread out his fruit and
to place his vessels on his roof without worrying about Tum'ah - provided
the Nochri cannot reach across to his roof.
(a) To reconcile this Beraisa with his opinion, Rebbi Yochanan explains this
Beraisa, according to those whose text reads 'Meimar Amar ...
1. ... 'Imtzuri ka'Memtzera', to mean - that there the Nochri has an excuse,
in that he can claim to have been stretching out his hand because he was
measuring the wall of his Chatzer where he intends to put up a building.
(b) And Rav will reconcile his opinion with a similar S'tam Beraisa which
permits it even if the Am ha'Aretz is able to reach across to the Chaver's
roof - by citing the previous Beraisa of Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, with
whose opinion he conforms.
2. ... 'Imtzudi ka'Memtzadna' to mean - that he was just stretching.
(a) Our Mishnah discusses a Boleshes that comes into town. 'Boleshes' is -
an army, so called from the word 'Bolesh', which means to search (because
enemy soldiers tend to search and dig).
(b) In a case where the Boleshes enters in time of peace - the Tana forbids
open barrels of wine, but permits sealed ones.
(c) If however, the same Boleshes enters in time of war, says the Tana -
even the open barrels will be permitted, because the soldiers have no time
to be Menasech.
(a) In connection with a besieging army that breached the walls and entered
the city - the Beraisa forbids all the Kohanos in the city to their
(b) It may not be their fault that they fell prey to unruly soldiers - but
the Torah forbids the wife of a Kohen to her husband even if she is raped.
(c) We reconcile this with the Seifa of our Mishnah which permits the wine
in time of war, because of the principle 'Ein P'nai Le'nasech' - by making a
distinction between Nisuch and Bi'ah ('Le'nasech Ein P'nai, Li've'ol Ein