ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Avodah Zarah 34
AVODAH ZARAH 34 (Nisan 14) - dedicated by Mr. D. Kornfeld l'Iluy Nishmas his
grandmother, Chayah bas Aryeh Leib Shpira (nee Sole), on the day of her
(a) When Rebbi Akiva arrived in Ginzak, they asked him whether 'Mis'anin
le'Sha'os' or not by which they meant - that if someone had not eaten up
until mid-day, it would be considered a fast, if he undertook to continue to
fast until nightfall (see also Tosfos DH 'Mis'anin').
(b) They also asked him - whether the earthenware jars of Ovdei Kochavim
were permitted or not ...
(c) ... and what Moshe wore during the Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im. Even though
he acted as the Kohen during that period, he could not wear the Bigdei
Kehunah whilst he served - because the Torah writes "Ve'asisa Bigdei Kodesh
*le'Aharon Achicha*" (rendering Moshe a Zar as far as the Bigdei Kehunah
(a) Rebbi Akiva - did not know the answers to any of the three She'eilos.
(b) So he took them to the Beis Hamedrash. With regard to ...
1. ... the question of 'Mis'anin le'Sha'os' - they replied in the
affirmative, adding that the Mis'aneh should add 'Aneinu' in Tefilas
(c) ... to which Rav Kahana added that it had no hem.
2. ... the question concerning earthenware jars, they replied - that the
jars were permitted after twelve months.
3. ... what Moshe wore during the Shiv'as Yemei ha'Milu'im - they replied
that he wore a long, plain white garment ...
(d) The reason for this cannot be in order to avoid suspicion that he had
taken money from the Terumas ha'Lishkah (whilst the boxes were being
emptied) - because the Melacheshes ha'Mishkan had long finished (in which
case there were no boxes that needed to be emptied), and during the Avodah,
there was nothing that Moshe could have taken.
(a) We learned in a Beraisa that grape-pits and skins are forbidden as long
as they are wet, but are permitted once they become dry. Rav Yehudah Amar
Shmuel defines 'dry' as - after twelve months.
(b) Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan explains - that when the Tana
rules 'Asurin' he means Asurin even be'Hana'ah, and when he rules 'Mutarin',
he means even to eat.
(c) What the wine-dregs of a Nochri (Rebbi Z'vid), barrels belonging to
Nochrim (Rav Chaviva b'rei de'Rava), thick leather flasks of the Arabs (Rav
Chaviva), the waste of a Nochri's grapes (Rav Acha b'rei de'Rav Ika) and red
and black barrels belonging to Nochrim (Rav Acha b'rei de'Rava) have in
common is - the fact that they are all permitted after twelve months,
without having to Kasher them.
(a) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa permits the Muryas (fish-hash) made by a
professional Nochri - because (in addition to the fact that it cannot be
made from Tamei fish) adding wine will only spoil it (due to the abundant
fats that go into it).
(b) Rebbi Yehudah ben Gamliel permits also Chilak (a Tahor fish called
'Sultanis'), which we might have thought is not Kasher, because it does not
grow scales until some time after it is born.
(c) The Chilak prepared ...
1. ... by an amateur is forbidden - because he mixes in similar-looking
Tamei fish that he catches in the same haul (see also next Mishnah).
(d) Avimi b'rei de'Rebbi Avahu is the one who cited the above Beraisa. He
qualifies the opening statement (permitting the Muryas made by a
professional Nochri) - by limiting it to the first two times that he adds
water and salt to the fish-juice, but not the third, because by then, it
will have lost its strength, and will not become spoilt by adding wine.
2. ... by a professional is permitted - because, due the inferior quality of
the Tamei fish, he is careful to remove them.
(a) When a Nochri boat containing Muryas arrived in the port of Acco, Rebbi
Aba from Acco placed a Shomer on the boat. Rebbi Aba found this strange -
because for the duration of the journey, there had been no Shomer, so how
did Rebbi Aba from Acco know that they had not added wine then?
(b) Rebbi Aba from Acco explained himself however, based on a statement
'Kista de'Muryas be'Luma, Kista de'Chamra be'Daled Lumi' - which means that
if a 'Kista' of Muryas is worth one Luma, a 'Kista' of wine is worth four
(so it would simply not be worth their while to add wine).
(c) When Rebbi Yirmiyah asked Rebbi Zeira how Rebbi Aba from Acco knew that
the boat had not stopped at Tzur where they may have may have purchased
wine, which was cheap there, to add to the Muryas, he replied - that this
was not possible, because the cross-currents and the melting snow made the
entry of a small boat into the port of Acco hazardous.
(a) Resh Lakish ascribes the ruling in our Mishnah, forbidding Nochri cheese
made in Beis Unaiki - to the fact that most cheeses are placed in the
stomachs of calves, and the majority of calves in Beis Unaiki are
(b) Bearing in mind that the author of our Mishnah is Rebbi Meir, we ask -
why the Tana requires a majority, since Rebbi Meir always takes the minority
opinion into account?
(c) And we answer - that even if most cheeses are placed in the stomachs of
calves a. some are not, and b. many cheeses are placed in stomachs of other
animals (none of which are worshipped). Consequently, the few stomachs that
come from calves that are worshipped constitute a 'Mi'uta de'Mi'uta' (a
small minority) which even Rebbi Meir does not contend with.
(a) Rebbi Shimon ben Elyakim queried Resh Lakish from his own opinion in an
independent Machlokes with Rebbi Yochanan regarding someone who Shechts an
animal with the intention of sprinkling its blood to Avodah-Zarah. Rebbi
Yochanan forbids the animal be'Hana'ah - because he holds 'Mechashvin
me'Avodah la'Avodah (a Pasul thought that one thinks whilst performing one
Avodah, which will invalidate another Avodah, is valid), which he learns
from Avodas P'nim, where this is the Halachah.
(b) Resh Lakish says there - 'Ein Mechashvin me'Avodah la'Avodah', because
he does not learn Avodas Chutz from Avodas P'nim.
(c) To reconcile his statement here with his opinion 'Ein Mechashvin
me'Avodah la'Avodah', he establishes our Mishnah - when the Nochrim actually
intend to worship the animals immediately upon the completion of the
Shechitah (before the sprinkling takes place).
(d) Resh Lakish says specifically 'G'mar Zevichah' (as opposed to the rest
of the Shechitah) - because he also holds 'Einah li'Shechitah Ela
(a) Rav Achdeva'i Amar Rav validates a Kidushin that involves the dung of a
Shor ha'Niskal. Had the man given the woman the dung of an Avodah-Zarah
animal - the Kidushin would have been invalid.
(b) The S'vara to make such a distinction is - the fact that whereas, in the
former case, the dung serves no purpose and nobody wants it, in the latter
case, it makes the animal that little bit fatter, thereby elevating the
status of the sacrifice to Avodah-Zarah (with which the owner is only too
(c) Alternatively, Rav learns the distinction from Pesukim. He Darshens the
1. ... "Lo Yidbak be'Yadcha *Me'umah*" - to mean that literally nothing of
Avodah-Zarah may be used.
2. ... "Sakol Yisakel ha'Shor, ve'Lo Ye'achel es Besaro" - 'Besaro Asur, ha
(a) Rava derives both Halachos from our Mishnah. He learns from Rebbi
Yishmael's response ...
1. ... to Rebbi Yehoshua's initial suggestion (that Chazal forbade the
cheese of Beis Unaiki because they placed them in (the milk of) the stomachs
of Neveilah 've'ha'Lo Keivas Olah Chamurah mi'Keivas Neveilah ve'Amru Kohen
... Shorfah Chayah' - that the dung of Isurei Hana'ah (such as Olah) is
(b) According to the Rabbanan in our Mishnah, the Muryas of Nochrim is not
Asur be'Hana'ah - because the wine is no longer in evidence.
2. ... Rebbi Yehoshua's reply ('Mipnei she'Mama'adin Osah be'Keivas Eglei
Avodah-Zarah') 'im-Kein, Lamah Lo Asruhah be'Hana'ah?' - that - the dung of
Avodah-Zarah (i.e. the taste of the stomach in the cheese) is forbidden.
(c) We do not say the same about (the milk in) the stomach of Avodah-Zarah -
because since it helps in the production of the cheese, it is considered as
if it was still in existence (hence the principle of 'Holchin Basar