POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Avodah Zarah 70
AVODAH ZARAH 69-71 - Three Dafim have been sponsored through the generous
grant of an anonymous donor in Flatbush, NY.
1) WHEN ARE NOCHRIM AFRAID TO TOUCH?
(a) (Rava): If Yisraelim were with a Nochris harlot (and
there was wine of Yisraelim there), we are not concerned
that they were (Rashi; Ran - allowed her to) Menasech;
2) IF THIEVES OPENED WINE
1. Granted, the evil inclination for relations
overcomes them, but the desire for Nisuch is not so
(b) If Nochrim were with a Yisraelis harlot, the wine is
1. Since she is loose with them, she is drawn after
their ways, we are concerned that she allowed them
(c) Reuven's wine was in a house; a Nochri entered and closed
the door. There was a crack in the door, the Nochri could
be seen between the barrels.
(d) (Rava): The barrels that can be seen through the crack
are permitted (even to drink them), those outside the
field of vision are forbidden (Rashi - to benefit from
them (also in the coming cases); Ra'avad - to drink).
(e) Reuven's wine was in a house; a Nochri lived on the
ground floor, a Yisrael in the second story. They heard a
dispute and went outside to see; the Nochri returned and
closed the door.
(f) (Rava): The wine is permitted - the Nochri suspects that
the Yisrael returned first, he fears to touch the wine
lest the Yisrael see him from above.
(g) Reuven's wine was in an inn; a Nochri was found near it.
(h) (Rava): If the Nochri has no permission to be there (and
seemingly entered to steal) he is nervous, he would not
touch the wine, it is permitted; if not, it is forbidden.
(i) Reuven's wine was in a house; a Nochri was found near it.
(j) (Rava): If the Nochri has an excuse why he is there, he
is not afraid, it is forbidden; if not, it is permitted.
(k) Question (Beraisa): If an inn was locked (and a Nochri
was alone with wine inside), or if a Yisrael asked him to
guard the wine (from the outside), it is forbidden.
1. Suggestion: It is forbidden even if the Nochri has
no excuse why he is there.
(l) Answer: No, the case is that he has an excuse.
(m) A Yisrael and a Nochri were drinking wine together; they
heard people calling that it is time to pray in the Beis
ha'Keneses, the Yisrael left.
(n) (Rava): The wine is permitted - at every moment, the
Nochri is concerned that the Yisrael remembered that he
left his wine and is returning for it.
(o) A Yisrael and a Nochri were drinking wine together on a
boat; they heard the Shofar blasts signifying to stop
working because Shabbos has come; the Yisrael went
(p) (Rava): The wine is permitted - at every moment, the
Nochri is concerned that the Yisrael remembered his wine
and is returning for it;
1. Nochrim think that Yisraelim do not observe Shabbos
(if it will entail a loss).
(q) A Nochri at the winepress heard a lion roar; he hid among
2. (Isar the convert): When I was a Nochri, we used to
say that Yisraelim do not observe Shabbos - if they
did, many wallets would be found in the market (of
Yisraelim who were on the road when Shabbos came,
and are forbidden to carry their wallets home).
3. Nochrim do not know R. Yitzchak's law.
i. (R. Yitzchak): If one found a wallet (and
picked it up before Shabbos, and there is not a
Nochri, animal, deaf person, lunatic or child
to carry it), on Shabbos he may carry it up to
(but not including) four Amos at a time (i.e.
after stopping, he may again carry it up to
(r) (Rava): The wine is permitted - he assumes that Yisraelim
are also hiding, he is afraid to touch the wine.
(a) Thieves came to Pumbadisa and opened many barrels of
wine; Rava permitted them.
(b) Question: What was his reason?
(c) Answer: Most thieves in Pumbadisa are Yisraelim (who are
the vast majority of the residents).
(d) A similar case occurred in Neharda'a; Shmuel permitted
(e) Suggestion: This is like R. Eliezer.
1. (Mishnah - R. Eliezer): (There was Tum'ah in a
certain field in a valley.) If Shimon entered the
valley but does not know whether or not he entered
that field, he is Tahor;
(f) Rejection: No, Shmuel permits because some thieves open
barrels looking for valuables;
i. If he (knows that he entered that field, but is
unsure whether or not he touched the Tum'ah) he
1. Shmuel permits because of a Sefek Sefeka (there are
two doubts - perhaps a Yisrael opened the barrels;
even if Nochri opened them, perhaps he only was
seeking valuables, and when he saw that it was wine
he did not touch it).
(g) A (Rashi - young) Nochris was found among barrels of
wine, foam of wine was in her hand.
3) WHO IS BELIEVED ABOUT "TAHAROS"
(h) (Rava): The wine is permitted - perhaps it came to her
hand from the outside of the barrel;
1. Even if we do not see any other foam on the outside,
perhaps she happened to touch the one place where
there was foam.
(i) A general (and his army) came to Neharda'a; they opened
many barrels of wine.
(j) (Rav Dimi): A similar case occurred (in Eretz Yisrael),
R. Elazar permitted it;
1. I am unsure - perhaps this was because he holds like
R. Eliezer (who is lenient regarding a doubt if the
Tamei field was entered);
2. Or, perhaps it was because most soldiers that follow
a general are Yisraelim.
3. Version #1 (Rashi) Question: (If the first answer
assumes that most soldiers that follow a general are
Nochrim, and we do not know whether the barrels were
opened for drinking or in search of money,) this is
not doubtful entering, rather, it is doubtful
touching (even R. Eliezer is stringent)!
4. Answer: The case is, they opened more barrels than
needed for drinking; presumably, most barrels were
opened to look for valuables, therefore we are
5. Version #2 (Tosfos) Question: (The first answer
considers the soldiers to be doubtful Nochrim -) R.
Eliezer only permitted a Sefek Sefeka, here there is
a single doubt (whether a Yisrael or Nochri
6. Answer: The case is, they opened more barrels than
needed for drinking, therefore it is a Sefek Sefeka
(like Shmuel's ruling above).
(a) A Yisraelis used to sell wine; she gave the keys to a
Nochris to guard.
4) DO SOLDIERS HAVE TIME TO BE "MENASECH?"
(b) (R. Yitzchak): A case occurred, Rabanan said that the
Nochris was entrusted only with the keys (she has no
excuse to be near the wine, therefore she is afraid to
(c) Support (Abaye - Mishnah): A Chaver (who is careful about
Tum'ah) gave his keys to an ignoramus to guard - the
Chaver's Taharos are still Tahor, for the ignoramus was
entrusted only with the keys (he has no excuse to touch
1. If the Taharos are still Tahor, all the more so the
wine should be permitted!
(d) Inference: This implies that we are more stringent
regarding Taharos than regarding Yayin Nesech.
(e) Confirmation: Yes; we may also derive this from Rav.
1. (Rav): If a Mesifas (Rashi - a low fence; Aruch - a
fence with windows) divided a Chatzer, and a Chaver
put Taharos on his side (and an ignoramus lives on
the other side), they are (assumed to be) Teme'im;
2. (R. Yochanan): They are Tehorim.
3. Question (against Rav - Beraisa): If a Chaver lives
in a Chatzer whose only exit to Reshus ha'Rabim is
through the Chatzer of an ignoramus, he may put
Taharos near the border of the Chatzeros, even if
the ignoramus could reach them (and they are
4. Answer (Rav): There is different, the ignoramus will
not touch them, for he has no excuse to enter the
Chaver's Chatzer, if he would reach over, it would
appear that he wants to steal.
5. Question (against R. Yochanan - Beraisa - R. Shimon
ben Gamliel): If a Chaver's roof is adjacent to and
higher than his neighbor's (an ignoramus), he may
not put Taharos there unless they are out of the
reach of his neighbor.
6. Answer (R. Yochanan): That case is different, his
neighbor has an excuse to reach over, he could say
that he was measuring (Me'iri - testing the
sturdiness of) the roof (Aruch - he could say that
he was stretching)!
7. Question (against Rav - Beraisa): If a Chaver's roof
is adjacent to his neighbor's (an ignoramus), he may
put Taharos on it, even within his neighbor's reach.
8. Answer (Rav): Tana'im argue about this, I hold like
R. Shimon ben Gamliel.
(a) (Mishnah): If an army entered a city in peacetime, open
barrels of wine are forbidden, closed barrels are
(b) In wartime, all are permitted because they do not have
time to Menasech.
(c) (Gemara - Mishnah) Contradiction: If an army besieging a
city conquered the city, all wives of Kohanim are
forbidden to their husbands (perhaps they were raped).
(d) Answer (Rav Mari): Soldiers do not have time to Menasech,
but they find time to rape (because they have a greater
desire for this).