POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Avodah Zarah 22
AVODAH ZARAH 22 - Today's Daf has been dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Rav Shalom
ben Aryeh Leibush (Fogel), by Keren Tzidkas Shalom. D.A.F. is grateful for
their assistance in our Harbatzas Torah.
1) WHY WE MAY NOT RENT TO KUSIM
(a) Question: Why is it permitted to rent to Nochrim?
2) PARTNERSHIP WITH NOCHRIM
(b) Answer: We tell him not to work on Shabbos, and he
(c) Question: Likewise, it should be permitted to rent to
Kusim, we will tell him not to work on Chol ha'Moed!
(d) Answer: The Kusi will not listen, he thinks he knows the
law better than we do.
(e) Question: R. Shimon ben Elazar forbade because people
call it the Yisrael's field - even without this, it is
forbidden on account of "Lifne Iver"!
(f) Answer: Indeed, the Tana means, it is forbidden on
account of Lifne Iver, and also because people call it
the Yisrael's field.
(a) Version #1: Some Yisraelim and Nochrim were jointly
sharecroppers (in saffron gardens). The Nochrim would
work on Shabbos, the Yisraelim the next day; Rava
***** PEREK EIN MA'AMIDIM ****
(b) Question (Ravina - Beraisa): If a Yisrael and Nochri
accepted to work a field as sharecroppers, the Yisrael
may not tell the Nochri 'Take your share of the produce
for working on Shabbos, I will take a corresponding
(extra) share during the week';
1. If they stipulated from the beginning, it is
(c) Rava was embarrassed (that he erred). Later, it was found
that they had stipulated from the beginning (the ruling
2. If they made a calculation (of how much each should
get), it is forbidden.
(d) Version #2 (Rav Gavihah of Bei Kesil): Some Yisraelim and
Nochrim were hired together to plant new trees. The
Yisraelim told the Nochrim to work the trees (and enjoy
the produce) for the three years of Orlah, the Yisraelim
would work them for three other years. Rava permitted it.
(e) Question: This version cannot be correct, for then Ravina
had no question from the Beraisa!
(f) Answer: Indeed, Ravina brought the Beraisa to support
Rava (if they stipulated from the beginning, it is
permitted, for the Nochri is not like the Yisrael's
worker, even though the Yisrael profits; the same applies
(g) Question: But Rava was embarrassed (clearly, Ravina asked
(h) Answer: According to this version, Rava was not
(i) Question: May they divide the money equally without
mentioning the share for Shabbos?
(j) Answer (Beraisa): If they stipulated from the beginning,
it is permitted;
1. Inference: If they did not stipulate from the
beginning, it is forbidden.
(k) Question: We may infer the opposite from the end of the
1. (Beraisa): If they made a calculation, it is
(l) Conclusion: The inferences contradict one another - we
cannot determine which is correct.
2. Inference: If they did not made a calculation, it is
3) NOCHRIM ARE SUSPECTED OF BESTIALITY
(a) (Mishnah): We may not leave animals in inns owned by
Nochrim, for they are suspected of bestiality;
(b) A woman may not be secluded with Nochrim, for they are
suspected of illicit relations;
(c) A man may not be secluded with Nochrim, for they are
suspected of murder.
(d) (Gemara - Beraisa) Contradiction: We may buy an animal
from Nochrim for a sacrifice, we are not concerned that a
Nochri slept with it, or it slept with a Nochri, or it
was Muktzeh (designated for idolatry; Tosfos - and given
to the priests and fed fodder of idolatry), or was
1. We understand why we are not concerned for Muktzeh,
or that it was worshipped - a Nochri would not sell
such an animal.
(e) Answer #1 (Rav Tachlifa): A Nochri does not sleep with
his animal, for this would make it sterile. (Other
answers will be given on 23A.)
2. But we should be concerned for bestiality!
(f) Question: This does not apply to male animals!
(g) Answer (Rav Kahana): A Nochri does not sleep with his
male animal, for this would make it weaker.
(h) Question (Beraisa): We may buy an animal from a Nochri's
shepherd (a Nochri) for a sacrifice.
1. We should be concerned that the shepherd slept with
it (it is not his animal)!
(i) Answer: He is afraid lest the owner find out and deduct
from his wages.
(j) Question (Beraisa): We may not give an animal to a Nochri
1. We should not be concerned, he is afraid to sleep
with it lest he lose his wages!
(k) Answer: A shepherd of a Nochri fears his boss, since they
all enjoy bestiality, they suspect each other;
1. A shepherd of a Yisrael thinks that his boss does
not suspect him.
(l) Question: Why may we buy a male animal from a Nochris,
perhaps she slept with it (the deterrents of sterility
and weakening the animal do not apply)!
2. (Rabah): Lowly people understand and fear each
(m) Answer: She is afraid that the animal will follow her
around (and people will know why).
(n) Question: Rav Yosef taught, a widow may not keep a dog,
nor host a Talmid in her inn.
1. We understand that she is suspected of sinning with
the Talmid, she trusts that he will not reveal
(o) Answer: Regarding a dog, people will assume it follows
her because she often feeds it meat.
2. But why are we concerned for a dog - it would follow
(p) Question: Why may we not leave a female animal with a
(q) Answer #1 (Mar Ukva bar Chama): Nochrim often go to other
women; perhaps a Nochri will come, not find her and have
relations with the animal.
(r) Answer #2: Even if the Nochri finds her, perhaps he will
prefer to have relations with the animal;
1. Nochrim prefer animals of Yisrael above their own
(s) Question: Are we concerned that Nochrim will have
bestiality with birds?
2. (R. Yochanan): When the serpent had relations with
Chavah, he inserted filth in her (which passed to
3. Question: Also Yisrael descends from Chavah!
4. Answer: When Yisrael came to Sinai, the filth left
them; it never left the Nochrim.
(t) Answer: Yes.
1. (Rav Yehudah citing R. Chanina): I saw a Nochri buy
a duck, have relations with it, choke it, roast it
and eat it.
2. (R. Yirmeyah mi'Difti): I saw an Aravi buy a thigh
of meat, cut a hole (for relations), have relations
with it, roast it and eat it.