POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Avodah Zarah 15
1) SELLING SMALL ANIMALS TO NOCHRIM (cont.)
(a) Answer #2 (R. Elazar): Even though it is always forbidden
to leave animals by them, selling is permitted (except in
places where custom is not to sell).
2) SELLING LARGE ANIMALS TO NOCHRIM
(b) Question: What is the reason?
(c) Answer: A Nochrim would not sleep with his own animal,
for this makes it sterile.
(d) Rav retracted and agreed with R. Elazar.
1. (Rav Tachlifa citing Rav): A Nochrim is concerned
that his animal not become sterile.
(a) (Mishnah): In all places it is forbidden to sell large
3) MAKING LENIENT ASSUMPTIONS
(b) Question: What is the reason?
(c) Answer #1: Granted, they are not suspected of bestiality,
but they would work with the animal on Shabbos.
(d) Objection: Once the Nochri acquires the animal, it is
his, the animal may work on Shabbos!
(e) Answer #2: This is a decree, lest one rent or lend an
animal to a Nochri.
(f) Objection: Also one who rents or borrows an animal
acquires it (for the agreed period of time)!
(g) Answer #3 (Rami brei d'R. Yeva): This is a decree, lest
the Nochri will want to test the animal;
1. Sometimes he buys an animal just before Shabbos, and
wants to see how the animal carries burdens; the
animal will go when it hears its owner's voice, the
owner transgresses Mechamer (making an animal work
on Shabbos), he must bring a Chatas.
(h) Question (Rav Shisha brei d'Rav Idi): Rental does not
1. (Mishnah): Even where one may rent houses to
Nochrim, he may not rent for the Nochri to dwell in,
for the Nochri would bring in his idols (and a
Yisrael may not have idols in his house).
(i) Answer: Normally, rental acquires; idolatry is an
exception, it is more stringent - "V'Lo Savi So'evah El
i. If rental acquires, the idols are in the
(j) Objection (R. Yitzchak brei d'Rav Mesharshiya): Rental
does not acquire!
1. (Mishnah): If a Yisrael rents a cow from a Kohen, he
may feed it vetch of Terumah; if a Kohen rents a cow
from a Yisrael, even though the Kohen must feed it,
he may not feed it vetch of Terumah.
(k) Conclusion: We may say that the decree was on account of
rental, lending and testing the animal.
i. If rental acquires, the Kohen owns the cow, he
should be allowed to feed it vetch of Terumah!
2. Indeed, this shows that rental does not acquire.
(l) Rav Ada permitted selling a donkey through a Safsira
(someone who buys and sells animals):
1. We are not concerned lest the Nochri will want to
test the animal, because, the animal does not
recognize the Safsira's voice;
2. We are not concerned that the Safsira will rent or
lend it out, because it is not his; also, he does
not want defects of the animal to become known.
(a) Rav Huna sold a cow to a Nochri.
(b) Rav Chisda: Why is this permitted?
(c) Rav Huna: I may assume that he bought it to eat it
(d) Question: How do we know that we can be lenient to say
4) SELLING WEAPONS TO NOCHRIM
(e) Answer #1 (Mishnah - Beis Shamai): In Shemitah, a person
may not sell a cow fit for plowing to someone suspected
of working in Shemitah;
1. Beis Hillel permit this, he may assume that the
buyer wants to eat it.
(f) Rejection (Rabah): That is different, because a person is
not commanded that his animals rest in Shemitah;
1. A person is commanded that his animals rest on
Shabbos, he may assume that the buyer wants to eat
(g) Objection #1 (Abaye): Even when a person is commanded,
sometimes he may make favorable assumptions!
1. A person is commanded that his field rest in
(h) Objection #2 (Rav Ashi): Even when a person is not
commanded, sometimes he may not make favorable
2. (Mishnah - Beis Shamai): A person may not sell a
plowed field in Shemitah to someone suspected of
working in Shemitah;
3. Beis Hillel permit this, he may assume that the
buyer wants to leave it fallow until the following
1. A person is not commanded that his vessels rest in
(i) Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Rather, whenever we can attribute
the buyer's intention to something permitted, we may be
lenient; if not, we must be stringent (people do not buy
vessels a year before they need them);
2. (Mishnah): A person may not sell the following
vessels in Shemitah (Ran - to someone suspected of
working in Shemitah): a plow and all vessels used
with it, a yoke, a shovel; or a hoe (Tosfos - the
latter two refer to parts of a plow).
1. It makes no difference whether or not the seller is
(j) Rabah sold a donkey to someone suspected of selling to
(k) Abaye: Why did you do this?
(l) Rabah: I sold to a Yisrael!
(m) Abaye: But he will sell to a Nochri!
(n) Rabah: He might, but also he might sell to a Yisrael;
therefore, I may assume he will do so.
(o) Question (Beraisa): In a place where the custom is to
sell small animals to Kusim, we may sell; in a place
where the custom is not to sell, it is forbidden.
1. Question: What is the reason?
(p) Rabah ran three Parsa'os (some say - a Parsah in sand) to
retract the sale, but was unable to catch the buyer.
i. Suggestion: Kusim are suspected of bestiality.
2. Rejection #1 (Beraisa): We may not leave an animal
with a Nochri innkeeper, even a male with a male or
a female with a female (a man may come looking for
her, not find her, and have relations with it
instead), all the more so if the animal is the
i. We may not leave an animal with a Nochri
shepherd; one may not be secluded with a Nochri
(lest the Nochri kill him), we do not ask a
Nochri to teach a child to read or a trade
(lest he veer the child to heresy, or have
relations with him);
3. Rejection #2 (Beraisa): We may not sell to Nochrim
or Kusim weapons nor handles of weapons, we do not
sharpen their weapons, we do not sell to them
shackles and chains (for holding prisoners).
ii. All of these are permitted regarding Kusim.
4. Question: Why may we not sell to Kusim?
i. Suggestion: They are suspected of killing.
5. Answer (also to Question o:1): Rather, because they
sell them to Nochrim.
ii. Rejection: It is permitted to be secluded with
6. Suggestion: Perhaps we are only concerned about
Kusim, but we assume that a Yisrael (even though he
is suspected) will repent and not sell to Nochrim.
7. Rejection: Rav Nachman taught, just as it is
forbidden to sell to a Nochri, also to a Yisrael
suspected of selling to Nochrim.
(a) (Rav Dimi): Just as it is forbidden to sell to a Nochri,
also to a Yisrael robber.
1. Question: What is the case?
(b) (Beraisa): We do not sell shields to Nochrim; some say,
it is permitted.
i. If the robber is suspected of killing, this is
obvious, he is like a Nochri!
2. Answer: He does not (Ran - want to) kill, but if his
victim contests him, he will fight him (Rashi - and
keep the money; Ran - and kill him).
ii. If he does not kill, why it is forbidden?
(c) Question: Why does the first opinion forbid it?
(d) Version #1 - Answer: Because it helps them survive.
(e) Question: If so, it should also be forbidden to sell
grain to them!
(f) Answer (Rav): Indeed, if one can avoid selling grain
(without causing animosity), he should not sell!
(g) Version #2 - Answer: When they run out of weapons, they
use their shields to kill;
1. The lenient opinion says that when they run out of
weapons, they flee. (End of Version #2)
(h) (Rav Nachman): The Halachah is, we may sell shields to