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1) [line 2] RAV GUVREI - his actions and wisdom are great
3) [line 13] SETARANURA - the holiday of "Saturnalium," a Roman holiday, fixed at the end of the year, that gives honor to Saturn, the Roman mythical god that presides over all endings and rests. When the Chachamim changed the name because of "Lo Yishama Al Picha," they made a Notrikon (cocophemistic etymology) of "Setar Nura," meaning "the sun (Nura, or flaming light) is at the side (furthest distance, which occurs at the end of the solar year in the northern hemisphere)." (TIFERES YISRAEL, cited by YOSEF DA'AS)
4) [line 14] YOM GINUSYA SHEL MALCHEIHEM - the day that their king was inaugurated
5) [line 15] KOL MISAH SHE'YESH BAH SEREIFAH - any [king's] death that leads
to burning [that king's possessions] (SORFIN AL HA'MELACHIM)
6) [line 16] YOM TIGLACHAS ZEKANO U'VELURISO - the day that individual idol worshippers would shave off their beards and the hair of the Beloris. The Beloris is the long hair grown at the back of the head by idol-worshipping youths of the upper classes in honor of their gods. That hair was offered to their gods once a year.
7) [line 21] SARACHTI - I sinned
9) [line 23] TEKUFAS TEVES - the winter solstice (the day with the shortest daytime and longest nighttime), the first day of the winter season, which lasts for three solar months and ends on the day before the vernal equinox
10) [line 26] B'TISHREI NIVRA HA'OLAM / B'NISAN NIVRA HA'OLAM
11a) [line 26] YOMEI ZUTEI - days with short daytime
14) [line 32] "V'SITAV LA'SH-M MI'SHOR PAR MAKRIN MAFRIS." - "And it shall be pleasing to HaSh-m more than a full-grown bull that has horns and hoofs." (Tehilim 69:32) - RASHI to Tehilim explains that the one-day-old ox that Adam offered as a sacrifice had the characteristics of a Par (usually a two- or three-year-old bull, which may be sacrificed). Ordinarily, an animal is not fit for sacrificing until it is at least eight days old.
15) [line 40] SATRANALYA - see above, entry #3
17) [line 50] "... V'KARA LECHA V'ACHALTA MI'ZIVCHO." - "[Lest you make a covenant with the inhabitants of the land, and they stray after their gods, and sacrifice to their gods,] and [one of them] calls you, and you eat of his sacrifice." (Shemos 34:15)
18) [line 50] AD D'ACHIL - until he actually eats [from the forbidden sacrifice]
19) [last line] MI'SHE'AS KERI'AH - (lit. from the time that he is called) from the time that he participates in the event, even if he eats his own food
20) [line 1] KOL TELASIN YOMIN - for all of the thirty days [after the wedding]
21) [line 1] HILULA - a wedding
23) [line 7] MI'KI RAMU SA'AREI B'ASINTI - (a) from the time that the barley is thrown into a vat of water (to ferment into beer for the wedding) (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) from the time that the barley is planted into a flowerpot that will be shown, once the grains start growing, to the wedding couple, as a good sign that they should be fruitful and multiply and grow like those barley grains (RASHI, 2nd explanation); (c) from the time that the barley is placed into a mortar to grind them into barley meal, one of the ingredients of a dish to be served at the wedding (ARUCH)
24) [line 9] IKLA - he visited
26a) [line 17] B'YMEI KELIPATRA MALKESA - in the times of Queen Cleopatra.
Octavian, who became emperor and called himself Augustus, defeated his rival
Mark Antony, who had married and joined forces with the queen of Egypt,
Cleopatra, in 32 BCE.
27) [line 21] HACHI ASNU BAHADAIHU - this is what they (the Roman forces and the Jewish, Chashmona'im forces, stipulated with each other)
28) [line 21] IY MINAN MALCHEI, MINAICHU HIPARCHEI - if the kings will be appointed from us, the governors will be appointed from you
29a) [line 25] MARGALIS - pearl
33a) [line 34] "[VA'YOMER] 'NIS'AH V'NELECHAH V'ELCHAH L'NEGDECHA.'" - "And
he said, 'Let us travel and we will go, and I will go together with you.'"
(Bereishis 33:12) - Esav, who made this statement to Yakov, was the forebear
of the Roman nation, and thus the Roman nation interpreted his words as a
sign for how they were to conduct themselves.
34) [line 41] PASHTAH MALCHUS HA'RESHA'AH AL YISRAEL - the wicked kingdom (of Rome) dominated the Jewish nation
35) [line 43] GAZRU TUM'AH AL ERETZ HA'AMIM V'AL KELEI ZECHUCHIS - the
Rabanan decreed a status of Tum'ah for the land of the nations (land outside
of Eretz Yisrael) and for vessels made of glass
36) [line 45] GALSAH SANHEDRIN V'YASHVAH LAH B'CHANUS - the Sanhedrin (the Beis Din ha'Gadol of seventy-one judges, the Jewish "Supreme Court") was exiled (from their seat in the Lishkas ha'Gazis in the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash) to Chanus (or Chanuyos), a place on Har ha'Bayis
37) [line 46] DINEI KENASOS
38) [line 47] BERAM - in truth
39) [line 48] KOL HA'SOMECH YEHAREG - whoever grants Semichah (the rights of
Rabbinical authority) will be killed
40) [line 49] TECHUM - the border of the city, a radius of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from the city walls
41) [line 49] YE'AKER - it will be uprooted
42) [line 50] TECHUMEI SHABBOS A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov. (If he wants to walk another 2000 Amos, he must make an Eruv Techumin; see Background to Eruvin 17:18.)
43a) [line 50] USHA - Usha, a city in the western part of the lower Galilee.
It was one of the ten places to which the Sanhedrin was exiled at the time
of the destruction of the second Beis ha'Mikdash.
44) [line 52] HAREINI MUTAL LIFNEIHEM K'EVEN SHE'EIN LAH HOFCHIN - I hereby am placed before you like a stone that has no one to turn it over. (See MAHARSHA, who explains that just as a stone cannot flee, Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava did not try to flee, and just as a stone does not feel pain, so, too, Rebbi Yehudah ben Bava felt no pain. The TASHBATZ KATAN (#415) explains that one who is killed Al Kidush HaSh-m experiences no pain.)
45) [line 53] NA'ATZU - they pierced