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1) [line 4] SHE'HU K'CHOHEN GADOL - that he is like a Kohen Gadol (that is, he is compared to a Kohen Gadol to emphasize his greatness and holiness, in the same sense that the Mishnah (Horiyos 13a) states that a Mamzer who is a Talmid Chacham takes priority, in certain Halachic respects, to a Kohen Gadol who is an Am ha'Aretz -- IYUN YAKOV to Sanhedrin 59a)
2) [line 4] "[U'SHMARTEM ES CHUKOSAI V'ES MISHPATAI,] ASHER YA'ASEH OSAM HA'ADAM VA'CHAI BAHEM." - "[You shall therefore keep My statutes, and My judgments;] which if a man does, he shall live in them; I am HaSh-m." (Vayikra 18:5) - Since the verse uses the word "ha'Adam" - "a man," Rebbi Meir learns that it includes Nochrim as well.
3) [line 10] GADOL HA'METZUVEH V'OSEH YOSER MISHE'EINO METZUVEH V'OSEH
4) [line 20] "IM LO VERISI YOMAM VA'LAILAH, CHUKOS SHAMAYIM VA'ARETZ LO SAMTI" - "If not for my covenant by day and by night, I would not have established the ordinances of heaven and earth (laws of nature)." (Yirmeyahu 33:25) - The heavens and the earth will disintegrate if Benei Yisrael stop learning the Torah and stop performing the Mitzvos.
5) [line 25] TOHU VA'VOHU - desolation and emptiness
7) [line 34] YAVO NEVUCHADNETZAR V'YA'ID B'CHANANYAH MISHA'EL V'AZARYAH SHE'LO HISHTACHAVU LA'TZELEM - [King] Nevuchadnetzar shall come and testify that Chananyah Misha'el and Azaryah did not bow down to his golden statue (source: Daniel 3:1-30)
8) [line 36] YAVO DARYAVESH V'YA'ID B'DANI'EL SHE'LO VITEL ES HA'TEFILAH - [King] Daryavesh shall come and testify that Daniel did not fail to pray to HaSh-m (even though praying to HaSh-m was explicitly prohibited by the king) (source: Daniel 6:1-29)
9) [line 37] YAVO BILDAD HA'SHUCHI V'TZOFAR HA'NA'AMASI V'ELIFAZ HA'TEIMANI V'YA'IDU VAHEM B'YISRAEL SHE'KIYEMU ES KOL HA'TORAH KULAH - these three friends of Iyov (Iyov 2:11) shall come and testify that Benei Yisrael kept the entire Torah. Since Iyov was one of the "Chasidei Umos ha'Olam" - "the Pious Ones of the Nations," his friends can testify that once suffering came upon him, he questioned HaSh-m's providence and even came close to denying HaSh-m's existence. This testimony will then be juxtaposed with the behavior of Benei Yisrael, who were prepared to and were actually killed, hanged and burned at the stake to sanctify the Name of HaSh-m, without losing their faith. (EMES L'YAKOV, cited by the CHIDUSHEI HA'GA'ONIM in the EIN YAKOV)
10) [line 45] BA BI'TERUNYA - comes with a complaint
12) [line 47] MEVA'ET - kicks it down (with the connotation of "rejects it")
14) [last line] ZIMNEI D'MASHCHA LEHU TEKUFAS TAMUZ AD CHAGA - There are times when Tekufas Tamuz lasts into the holiday of Sukos
15) [line 2] MITZTA'ER PATUR MIN HA'SUKAH - a person who is suffering is exempt from the Mitzvah of Sukah
16) [line 4] "YOSHEV BA'SHAMAYIM YISCHAK; [HASH-M YIL'AG LAMO.]" - "He who sits in the heavens shall laugh; [HaSh-m shall ridicule them.]" (Tehilim 2:4)
17) [line 9] EIN MEKABLIN GERIM LI'YEMOS HA'MASHI'ACH - converts will not be accepted after the coming of Mashi'ach (see Background to Yevamos 24:12)
18) [line 14] MILCHEMES GOG U'MAGOG
19) [line 16] LAMAH RAGSHU GOYIM; U'L'UMIM YEHGU RIK - see above, entry #13
20) [line 22] SHTEIM ESREH SHA'OS HEVEI HA'YOM - the day is made up of twelve Sha'os Zemaniyos (Halachic hours)
21) [line 25] KELAYAH - destruction
24) [line 27] YOSHEV U'MESACHEK IM LIVYASAN - He sits and plays lightheartedly with the Livyasan (see Insights)
25) [line 30] "VA'YIKRA HASH-M ELOKIM TZEVAKOS BA'YOM HA'HU LI'VECHI ULE'MISPED ULE'KORCHAH [V'LACHAGOR SAK.]" - "And HaSh-m, the L-rd, G-d of hosts declared that day to be for weeping, and mourning, and baldness, [and for girding with sackcloth.]" (Yeshayah 22:12)
26) [line 32] "IM ESHKACHECH YERUSHALAYIM, TISHKACH YEMINI. TIDBAK LESHONI L'CHIKI, IM LO EZKERECHI; [IM LO A'ALEH ES YERUSHALAYIM AL ROSH SIMCHASI.]" - "If I forget you, O Yerushalayim, let my right hand forget [its skill]. Let my tongue adhere to my palate (the roof of my mouth) if I fail to recall you; [if I fail to elevate Yerushalayim above my foremost joy.]" (Tehilim 137:5-6) - Since the beginning of this Psalm is in the plural tense and these two verses are in the singular tense, the Gemara understands that ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu is speaking.
27) [line 34] "HECHESHESI ME'OLAM, ACHARIS ES'APAK; [KA'YOLEDAH EF'EH, ESHOM V'ESH'AF YACHAD.]" - "I have remained silent for a long time; I have kept still, and refrained Myself; [now I will cry like a woman in labor; I will gasp and pant together.]" (Yeshayah 42:14)
28) [line 34] BI'REVI'IYOS MAI AVID? - What does He do in the fourth part of the day since the Beis ha'Mikdash was destroyed and He therefor does not play with His creations? (MAHARSHA)
29) [line 35] "ES MI YOREH DE'AH V'ES MI YAVIN SHEMU'AH? GEMULEI ME'CHALAV, ATIKEI MI'SHADAYIM." - "To whom shall one teach knowledge? And whom shall one make understand doctrine? Those who are weaned from mother's milk, and removed from the breasts." (Yeshayah 28:9) - The Gemara iterprets this to refer to those children who passed away young, before they were able to learn the Torah.
30) [line 37] "UME'IKARA MAN HAVAH MIGMAR LEHU? - During the years that the Beis ha'Mikdash stood, who taught those children? (MAHARSHA).
31) [line 37] MITATR*N (NOT TO BE PRONOUNCED!) - one of the ministering Angels, whose name is like the name of his Master (i.e. the Gematriya of his name is 314, which is the same as the Gematriya of the Holy Name Shakai) (see also RASHI to Shemos 23:21)
32) [line 39] KERUV KAL - a light cherub (The Gematriya of "Keruv Kal" is Mashi'ach; Mashi'ach is a "Merkavah" (chariot) for HaSh-m's Divine Presence -- BEN YEHOYADA, cited by YOSEF DA'AS. See also RASHI to Bereishis 17:22 and 18:2 DH Nitzavim)
33) [line 39] SHAT - floats
35) [line 40] "RECHEV ELOKIM RIBOSAYIM, ALFEI SHIN'AN..." - "The Angels (lit. chariots) of HaSh-m are twice ten thousand, thousands upon thousands; [HaSh-m is among them, as in Sinai, in the holy place.]" (Tehilim 68:18) - See next entry.
36) [line 40] AL TIKREI SHIN'AN ELA SHE'EINAN - read the word "Shin'an" as "she'Einan," "which are not [included]," i.e. subtract two thousand (the minimum number that could be described as "Alfei") from twenty thousand
37) [line 41] CHAYOS - the Chayos ha'Kodesh, the Beasts of the Holy Sanctum (based upon Yechezkel 1:5)
38) [line 43] GACHALEI RESAMIM - coals of Rosem wood, which continue to burn inside long after their exterior is extinguished
39) [line 43] "HA'KOTFIM MALU'ACH ALEI SI'ACH, V'SHORESH RESAMIM LACHMAM." - "They pick up mallows by the bushes, and roots of broom for their warmth." (Iyov 30:4) - RASHI explains the word "Malu'ach" in the Derashah of our Gemara in two ways: (a) *(Devarim Lachluchim) [Divrei Lichluchis]* - choice, succulent [plants]. The one who stops learning the Torah is similar to one who is Kotef (cuts) these succulent plants, not permitting them to grow any more. (b) He cuts off learning the words that were written in the *Luchos*.
40) [line 49] "VA'TA'ASEH ADAM KI'DEGEI HA'YAM, K'REMES LO MOSHEL BO." - "And do you make men like the fishes of the sea, like the creeping things, that have no ruler over them?" (Chabakuk 1:14)
41) [line 50] KEIVAN SHE'PORSHIN MI'DIVREI TORAH U'MIN HA'MITZVOS MIYAD MESIM - as soon as they separate themselves from the words of the Torah and from the Mitzvos, they immediately die [spiritually]
42) [line 51] KADRAH ALEIHEM CHAMAH - when the sun shines upon them strongly [even while they are in the water, e.g. shallow water]
43a) [line 53] H'KOL B'YDEI SHAMAYIM - everything (the Gemara is referring
to aches and pains) is in the hands of Heaven (RASHI)
44) [line 53] "TZINIM PACHIM B'DERECH IKESH; SHOMER NAFSHO YIRCHAK MEHEM" - "Chills and fevers (alt. swelling) are in the way of the crooked; he who guards his soul shall be far from them." (Mishlei 22:5)
45) [last line] NARTIKAH - its "sheath;" i.e. HaSh-m will make an extremely hot day
46) [last line] MAKDIR - and it bores [into the wicked]